The Pop History Dig

“U2’s MLK Songs”
1984

CD cover for the 1984 U2 single, “Pride (In The Name of Love),” a song in tribute to Dr. Martin Luther King.
CD cover for the 1984 U2 single, “Pride (In The Name of Love),” a song in tribute to Dr. Martin Luther King.
Back cover of U2's “Pride” single, with photo of Dr. Martin Luther King, and on some versions, a quotation excerpted from King’s 1963 book, “The Strength to Love.”
Back cover of U2's “Pride” single, with photo of Dr. Martin Luther King, and on some versions, a quotation excerpted from King’s 1963 book, “The Strength to Love.”

     In 1984, the Irish rock group U2 included two songs in homage to Martin Luther King on their album, The Unforgettable Fire.  The first song, “Pride (In the Name of Love),” is a song about Martin Luther King’s non-violent activism in the U.S. civil rights movement.  This song was released as the album’s lead single in September 1984 and became a top hit and one of the group’s most popular songs.  The second song, “MLK,” which closes the album, is a brief lullaby; a pensive piece with simple lyrics.

     U2 frontman Bono (Paul Hewson) and his bandmates came to the first of these songs in a somewhat round about way with some odd political beginnings.

     The music and melody for the song came before the lyrics, as it was late 1983 when some of the music for the song had been worked up and recorded.  But the lyrics and the song’s subject matter were a different story.  Initially, the song was intended to focus on Ronald Reagan’s pride in America’s military power as a possible theme – as a critique, no doubt.  But Bono soon had another idea based on some reading he was doing at the time.  Bono was influenced by two books, a biography of Malcolm X, and another book – Let The Trumpet Sound: The Life of Martin Luther King, Jr. , written by Stephen B. Oates.  These books appear to have set Bono thinking about the different approaches to achieving civil rights in the U.S. – the violent and the non-violent – each, respectively represented by their leaders, Malcom X, calling for revolution, and MLK, advocating peaceful, nonviolent protest in the mold of Mahatma Gandhi.  Thus, a couple of the lines from the resulting song could be taken to reflect these contrasting approaches – “One man come here to justify/ One man to overthrow.”  But in any case,  the general thrust of the song came to honor MLK’s peaceful approach – “in the name of love.”

“Pride (In the Name of Love)”
U2-1984

One man come in the name of love
One man come and go
One man come here to justify
One man to overthrow

In the name of love!
One man in the name of love
In the name of love!
What more? In the name of love!

One man caught on a barbed wire fence
One man he resists
One man washed on an empty beach
One man betrayed with a kiss

In the name of love!
What more in the name of love?
In the name of love!
What more? In the name of love!

…Nobody like you
     …There’s nobody like you…

Mmm…mmm…mmm…

Early morning, April 4
Shot rings out in the Memphis sky
Free at last, they took your life
They could not take your pride

In the name of love!
What more in the name of love?
In the name of love!
What more in the name of love?
In the name of love!
What more in the name of love…

     Still, not all of Bono’s bandmates thought that using Martin Luther King as a focus for the song would be a good idea – at least at first.  The Edge (David Howell Evans) would later recount of the song some years later:  “Because of the situation in our country [i.e., Ireland] non-violent struggle was such an inspiring concept.  Even so, when Bono told me he wanted to write about King at first I said, ‘Woah, that’s not what we’re about.’  Then he came in and sang the song and it felt right, it was great.  When that happens there’s no argument.  It just was.”

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“Pride (In The Name of Love)”

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     In the U.S., “Pride” became U2’s first top 40 hit, reaching No. 33.  In the U.K. it rose to No. 3 on the UK Singles Chart and also cracked the Top Ten in other European markets.  The song also hit No. 1 in New Zealand.  U2 at the time was continuing their commercial breakout, following the success of their 1983 album War,  their firt No. 1 U.K. album.  

     “Pride (In The Name of Love)” would become one of U2’s most popular songs through the years, often played at their many concerts around the world.  Clips from Martin Luther King speeches were often shown on video screens during the song’s airing at concert performances.

     In the 1980s, Bono described “Pride” as “the most successful pop song we’ve ever written.  Pop for me is an easily understood thing, you listen to it and you comprehend it almost immediately.  You relate to it instinctively….”  Not all critics agreed, however.  Rolling Stone’s Kurt Loder for one wrote that “‘Pride’ gets over only on the strength of its resounding beat and big, droning bass line, not on the nobility of its lyrics, which are unremarkable.”  And a few others felt that “pride” was not quite the right word for King.  The song also contains one historical mistake setting King’s shooting as “early morning, April 4″, when it actually occurred after 6 pm.  Bono has acknowledged the error and in live performances he often replaces the lyric with “early evening…”.

CD cover art from a later, deluxe edition of “The Unforgettable Fire Collection.”  The 1980s photo shows U2 band members, from left: The Edge, Adam Clayton, Larry Mullen, Jr., and Bono.
CD cover art from a later, deluxe edition of “The Unforgettable Fire Collection.” The 1980s photo shows U2 band members, from left: The Edge, Adam Clayton, Larry Mullen, Jr., and Bono.
     In later years, Bono would agree that the lyrics for this song weren’t the best, though at the time he and bandmates agreed to leave it as a simple sketch – as with the experimental nature of several other tracks on the  album, which were intended to be more impressionistic than literal.  Still, Bono’s earlier point about the instinctiveness of the song is generally correct; the lyrics effectively make the association with King and the power of the music drives home the underlying moral of the story.  Would that more rock artists ventured into social and moral messaging of this nature, however brief or tenuous the connection.

     On the back cover of the “Pride” single shown at the top of this article is a photograph of Dr. King, which on some versions included a quotation from King’s 1963 book, The Strength to Love, printed below the photo as follows: “Hatred and bitterness can never cure the disease of fear; only love can do that.  Hatred paralyzes life; love releases it.  Hatred confuses life; love harmonizes it.  Hatred darkens life; love illuminates it.”  In January 2009, at the “We Are One” celebration of musicians and public speakers during the first inauguration of U.S. President Barack Obama in Washington, DC., U2 performed “Pride (In The Name of Love)” before some 400,000 people assembled near the Lincoln Memorial.  At the end of the performance Bono remarked to the audience that King’s dream was “not just an American dream” but also an Irish dream, a European dream, an African dream, and more, as he began his next song, “City of Blinding Lights.”

“MLK”
U2-1984

Sleep
Sleep tonight
And may your dreams
Be realized

If the thundercloud
Passes rain
So let it rain
Rain down on him

Mmm…mmm…mmm…
So let it be
Mmm…mmm…mmm…
So let it be

Sleep
Sleep tonight
And may your dreams
Be realized

If the thundercloud
Passes rain
So let it rain
Let it rain
Rain on him

    MLK Song.  U2’s other song in tribute to Martin Luther King – titled “MLK” – is also on The Unforgettable Fire album.  It was written, some say, as an elegy to King.  The song has a dreamy, lullaby quality to it which seems to be suggesting, as if speaking to a generation of children and saying, “though the road ahead may have thunderclouds and rain, this too will pass, and your dreams can still be realized.  But sleep now, my child, sleep.”

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“MLK”-U2 (2:34)

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     The Unforgettable Fire album, meanwhile – which includes the two MLK songs – peaked at No.1 on both the U.K. and Australian album charts in 1984.  In the U.S., it peaked at No.12 on the album charts and was certified multi-platinum by the RIAA with 3 million units sold.  The album overall was something of a departure from what U2 had been doing and was also experimental in part as they were looking for something that was “a bit more serious, more arty,” as one description noted.  The Edge, for one, had been drawn to the work of Brian Eno and his engineer Daniel Lanois, who produced the album.

     King Center Award.  In January 2004, nearly twenty years after The Unforgettable Fire had first appeared, Bono and U2 would be recognized by Coretta Scott King and the King Center in Atlana, Georgia for the MLK tribute songs in the album.  Bono traveled to Atlanta to receive the honor at the annual “Salute to Greatness” Awards Dinner and he also attended a number of related events there to honor what would have been Martin Luther King Jr.’s 75th birthday.

January 17, 2004: Bono of U2 with Coretta Scott King, widow of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., at news conference in Atlanta. GA where Bono received a King Center award for U2's MLK tribute music.  Photo /W.A. Harewood/AP.
January 17, 2004: Bono of U2 with Coretta Scott King, widow of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., at news conference in Atlanta. GA where Bono received a King Center award for U2's MLK tribute music. Photo /W.A. Harewood/AP.
     Prior to receiving the award, Bono explained that growing up as a teenager in Ireland, when violence had escalated in northern Ireland, the warring factions needed a voice of reason like Martin Luther King.

     “We despaired for the lack of vision of the kind Dr. King gave to people in the [American] South,” Bono explained, accepting the award from King’s widow, Coretta Scott King.  A year earlier, Bono had been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize for his work to relieve third world debt and promote AIDS awareness.

     At the King Center, Coretta Scott King said in making the award: “We are fortunate this year to … honor Bono for exemplifying many of the qualities that my husband, Martin, indicated were imperative to moving our society into the beloved community of which he so often spoke.”

     Other stories at this website with civil rights-related content include “Strange Fruit” (Billie Holiday history)  and “Reese & Robbie” (Jackie Robinson & Pee Wee Reese).  Another U2 story at this website profiles the history of their 1992 song, “One,” and U2 and Bono are also included in the “iPod Silhouettes” story.  Additional story choices can also be made at the Annals of Music category page or on the Home Page.  Thanks for visiting – and please consider supporting this website.  Thank you. - Jack Doyle

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Date Posted: 16 August 2013
Last Update: 21 August 2013
Comments to: jdoyle@pophistorydig.com

Article Citation:
Jack Doyle, “U2’s MLK Songs: 1984,”
PopHistoryDig.com, August 16, 2013.

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Sources, Links & Additional Information

Paperback edition of Stephen B. Oates’ 1982 biography of Martin Luther King, “Let The Trumpet Sound,” one of the books Bono read during the making of the U-2 song, “Pride (In the Name of Love).”
Paperback edition of Stephen B. Oates’ 1982 biography of Martin Luther King, “Let The Trumpet Sound,” one of the books Bono read during the making of the U-2 song, “Pride (In the Name of Love).”
Original cover art for 1984 release of the U2 album, “The Unforgettable Fire.”
Original cover art for 1984 release of the U2 album, “The Unforgettable Fire.”

“U2,” in Holly George-Warren and Patricia Romanowski (eds), The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll, New York: Rolling Stone Press, 3rd Edition, 2001, pp.1022-1024.

U2 Website

Neil McCormick, U2 by U2, London: HarperCollins, 2006, 352pp.

Bill Graham and Caroline van Oosten de Boer, Complete Guide to the Music of U2, Omnibus Press, 2nd edition , August 2004, 92pp.

“Pride (In the Name of Love),” Wikipe- dia.org.

“Pride (In The Name Of Love) by U2,” Song Facts.com.

“U2,” Wikipedia.org.

Geoffrey Himes “Ireland’s U2, Rocking the Conscience,” Washington Post, December 5, 1984, p. C-1.

Stephen Holden, “Rock: The Irish Quartet U2 at Radio City Music Hall,” New York Times, December 6, 1984.

Robert Palmer, “U2 Starts National Tour on a Political Note,” New York Times, April 4, 1987.

Robert Hilburn, “Pop Music: U2’s Pride (In the Name of Songs) : Achtung, Babies: Bono and Edge Evaluate One Critic’s Choices for the Group’s 10 Best Recordings, from ‘I Will Follow’ to ‘One’,” Los Angles Times, Septem- ber 12, 1993.

Stephen M. Silverman, “Bono Likened to Martin Luther King,” People.com, January 20, 2004.

Associated Press, “Bono Accepts King Center’s High Honor,” Houston Chronicle, January 19, 2004.

Jillian Mapes, “10 Songs Honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.” Billboard, January 13, 2013.

“Irish Rock Star, Rare With Attitude – Bono Wins King Center Award,” Global Com- munity Counseling.

The Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Atlanta, Georgia, Website.

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U2 Song- “One”
1992

Limited edition prints and artwork for U2 and song ‘One’ by graphic arts designer & photographer Kostas Tsipos @ http://kostas-tsipos.blogspot.com/.
Limited edition prints and artwork for U2 and song ‘One’ by graphic arts designer & photographer Kostas Tsipos @ http://kostas-tsipos.blogspot.com/.
     In the spring of 1992, a song by the Irish rock group U2 entitled “One” was riding at the top of the modern music charts in the U.S., the U.K., and a number other countries.  The song was the third single released from U2’s November 1991 album, Achtung Baby.  “One” is widely considered to be one of U2’s greatest songs and is consistently ranked by music surveys as one of the most popular songs of the 1990s, with some listener surveys ranking it the No. 1 or No. 2 song of the decade.

     First released in March 1992, the song became a top-ten hit on U.K. and U.S. pop music charts in May 1992 and also reached the top of the U.S. Modern Rock Tracks chart.

     Part of the song’s popularity has to do with its message, variously interpreted by listeners and often attributed multiple meanings.  More on that in a moment.  However, the song’s creation and production also tell something of its meaning and origin, as well as the growth of the band.  By the early 1990s, U2 was a full decade into its stardom as one of the world’s best rock bands, but the group had received a round of criticism and was then struggling with its musical identity, looking for new direction.

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U2 Song – “One”

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[scroll down for lyrics]

Origins

     Founded in Dublin, Ireland in the mid-1970s, the U2 band consists of frontman and lead singer Paul “Bono” Hewson; guitarist Dave “the Edge” Evans who also does key- boards and vocals; Adam Clayton, bass guitar; and Larry Mullen, Jr., on drums and other percussion.  U2 rose to international acclaim first as a live act and then to worldwide superstardom following their 1987 album, Joshua Tree.  But not long thereafter, suffering some press criticism and feeling the need for a change, they began looking for new direction.  In 1990, the band had begun working on recording sessions for the album that would become Achtung Baby, their sixth studio album.  They were in Berlin at the time, in the midst of the “new Europe” optimism and German unification following the fall of the Berlin Wall.  They had gone there for inspiration.  The band itself, however, was then having some internal disagreements over their musical direction.  But in Berlin they began to find their muse again.

Limited edition poster art for U-2 song ‘One’ featuring Bono, by Greek graphic arts designer and photographer Kostas Tsipos  @ http://kostas-tsipos.blogspot.com/.
Limited edition poster art for U-2 song ‘One’ featuring Bono, by Greek graphic arts designer and photographer Kostas Tsipos @ http://kostas-tsipos.blogspot.com/.
     Among the songs developed was “One,” which became something of a breakthrough for the then struggling group.  The song emerged on two tracks.  Band members The Edge and others were working on the music, and Bono on lyrics.  Part of the inspiration for the lyrics reportedly grew out of a note Bono had sent to the Dalai Lama declining an invitation to a festival called Oneness. The note included, in part, the line, “one — but not the same,” a line which would later appear in the song’s lyrics.  That idea of “oneness,” Bono would later say, was a key concept for the song. 

     Known for his sometimes fortuitous improvisations at the microphone during recording sessions, Bono would later explain that the lyrics for “One” arrived in like fashion — “just fell out of the sky, a gift.”  Improvements to the song’s music and lyrics were made right up to the time of final recording back in Dublin, Ireland some months later.  Also important in this process was the production team of Daniel Lanois and Brian Eno who had helped U2 on previous albums.  However, in Berlin, when it first came together on “One,” there was a feeling they had found something new with this music, validated their “blank page” approach, and were on the right track.

The Ref full      “At the instant we were recording it, I got a very strong sense of its power,” explained The Edge.  “We were all playing together in the big recording room, a huge, eerie ballroom full of ghosts of the war, and everything fell into place. It was a reassuring moment… It’s the reason you’re in a band — when the spirit descends upon you and you create something truly affecting.  ‘One’ is an incredibly moving piece.  It hits straight into the heart.”

“One”

Is it getting better, or do you feel the same?
Will it make it easier on you,
     now you got someone to blame?
You say one love, one life,
     when it’s one need in the night.
One love, we get to share it
Leaves you baby if you don’t care for it.

Did I disappoint you
     or leave a bad taste in your mouth?
You act like you never had love
     and you want me to go without.
Well, it’s too late tonight to drag the past
     out into the light.
We’re one, but we’re not the same.
We get to carry each other,
     carry each other… one

Have you come here for forgiveness,
Have you come to raise the dead
Have you come here to play Jesus to the
     lepers in your head
Did I ask too much, more than a lot
You gave me nothing, now it’s all I got.
We’re one, but we’re not the same.
Well, we hurt each other, then we do it again.

You say love is a temple, love a higher law
Love is a temple, love the higher law.
You ask me to enter,
     but then you make me crawl
And I can’t be holding on to what you got,
     when all you got is hurt.

One love, one blood, one life,
     you got to do what you should.
One life with each other: sisters, brothers.
One life, but we’re not the same.
We get to carry each other, carry each other.
One, one. 

     Rolling Stone’s Elysa Gardner reviewing the finished album in January 1992 singled out the song as well. “…On the radiant ballad ‘One’,” she wrote, “the band invests an unexceptional message — ‘We’re one/But we’re not the same/We get to carry each other’ — with such urgency that it sounds like a revelation.  Few bands can marshal such sublime power, but it’s just one of the many moments on Achtung Baby when we’re reminded why, before these guys were the butt of cynical jokes, they were rock & roll heroes — as they still are.”


Message & Meaning

     The song’s lyrics, at their start, appear to focus on the ebb and flow of a personal love relationship and all its difficulties, head games, and contradictions.  But as the song progresses, it seems to become more of a universal message on the need for diverse peoples to work together despite their differences.  Bono has stated about writing the song: “I had a lot of things going on in my head at the time, about forgiveness, about father and son angst,” raising some of Bono’s past relationship with his father following the death of his mother when he was 14.  But on the more universal front, Bono has offered additional description.  “It is a song about coming together,” he explained to Los Angeles Times writer Robert Hilburn in 1993, “but it’s not the old hippie idea of  ‘Let’s all live together.’  It is, in fact, the opposite.  It’s saying, ‘We are one, but we’re not the same.’  It’s not saying we even want to get along, but that we have to get along together in this world if it is to survive.  It’s a reminder that we have no choice.”

     After the song’s release, listeners attributed their own interpretations to the song — ranging from an HIV-infected gay son in conversation with his father, to a confrontation between Christ and Satan over universal spiritual values.  Adding to, and/or, fueling these varying interpretations of the song were three music videos, each with somewhat different material.  One with a gay son confessing to his father that he is HIV-positive; another with footage of blooming flowers and buffalos (buffalo going over a cliff are also depicted on the single CD cover), and a third video with Bono in a bar, smoking a cheroot and drinking beer.  Interpretations aside  — and these can be found in great abundance on the web —  the song and the album, Achtung Baby, did quite well commercially.

Multi-Platinum

CD cover for U2's single “One,” depicting buffalo going over a cliff.  Photograph by the late David Wojnarowicz.
CD cover for U2's single “One,” depicting buffalo going over a cliff. Photograph by the late David Wojnarowicz.
     From its first release in Europe, “One” rose into the Top Ten on most but not all charts.  It hit No. 1 in Ireland the first week of March 1992; No. 1 on Billboard’s Modern Rock Tracks by April 4, 1992; and No. 1 in Canada for four weeks in May 1992.  In the U.K. it peaked at No. 7 on the singles chart and in the U.S. it rose to No. 10 on the Billboard Hot 100.  It also had a Top Ten performance in Australia and Top 40 ranking in Holland, France, and Switzerland, also doing well in Germany and Denmark.  Meanwhile, the full album Achtung Baby, which also featured the song “One” as its third track, had done well too.  It peaked at No.2 on the U.S. album chart and at No.1 on the U.K. album chart, also doing well in other countries such as Switzerland and Australia.  Achtung Baby — which won a Grammy for Best Rock Album by a group — was certified multi-platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America ( RIAA) and would sell more than 10 million units.

     U2 had donated a large amount of the proceeds from the single’s sale to AIDs charities.  The photograph of buffalo going over a cliff used on the U2 single was by gay artist David Wojnarowicz who intended it as symbolism to highlight the AID crisis.  Wojnarowicz later died from AIDs.  The second music video which used some of this buffalo imagery was also used on a huge screen as the backdrop to U2’s performance of the song during their Zoo TV tour.  The resulting work combined words, running buffalo and flowers.  A number of concert attendees who reported seeing it with U2’s performance of “One” described it as quite a moving experience.

“One” Stands Out

     After being in the musical firmament for more than a decade, U2’s “One” continues to register its share of fans and admirers.  In 2003, the British music magazine Q asked a selection of well-known musicians to cast their votes for a list of great songs — a list that would include the 1001 Greatest Songs of All-Time.  Voted No. 1 in this survey was U2’s “One”.  Q’s editor-in-chief, Paul Trynka, said of the winner: “I think people voted for this because it’s a classic that still feels fresh…It’s a great tune but despite being over ten years old we haven’t had time to get bored of it,” he said.  “It’s inspirational, it makes people feel good, but it also feels profound “It’s inspirational, it makes people feel good, but it also feels pro- found…”
                           – Q editor Paul Trynka
                              on U2’s “One.”
– all the more so when you hear Johnny Cash’s recent cover version.”  Cash had covered the song in November 2000 on his American III: Solitary Man album.  “One” has been covered by more than 25 other artists.

     In December 2004, when Rolling Stone magazine compiled its list of 500 Greatest Songs, “One” was ranked at No. 36, lower than Led Zeppelin’s “Stairway to Heaven”(No. 31) and the Righteous Brothers’ “You’ve Lost that Lovin’ Feelin” (No. 34 ) for example, but ahead of “Gimme Shelter” by The Rolling Stones (No. 38); and “Dancing in the Street,”by Martha and the Vandellas (No. 40). In 2005, when U2 gave a concert in New York, hip-hop and soul artist Mary J. Blige was invited on stage to perform the song with U2. The performance received a standing ovation. The song was then recorded featuring Blige on lead vocals, with Bono supplying additional vocals and the band performing the music. That song was then featured on Mary J. Blige’s multi-platinum album The Breakthrough, released in late 2005, and also released as an international single in April 2006.

Recent U2

U2 group, from left: Adam Clayton, The Edge, Bono, and Larry Mullen, Jr.  Photo, Time, Deidre O’Callaghan.
U2 group, from left: Adam Clayton, The Edge, Bono, and Larry Mullen, Jr. Photo, Time, Deidre O’Callaghan.
     In late March 2008, U2 signed a 12-year deal with music concert promoter Live Nation worth an estimated $100 million which includes Live Nation controlling the band’s merchandise, sponsor- ing, and website.  In February 2009, the band’s most recent album, No Line on the Horizon, was released.  It sold 484,000 copies its first week on the market.  Rolling Stone maga- zine featured the group in a cover story with its March 19, 2009 issue, indicating the group was once again in search of its muse — “U2 Digs Deep: Inside the Group’s Troubled Quest for a New Sound & Soul.”  Another U2 album is planned for the end of the year and the group will begin a worldwide stadium tour on June 30, 2009.  Entitled the “U2 360 Tour,” it will include European and North American legs with additional shows to follow in 2010.  The tour will feature a 360-degree staging configuration, in which audience will completely surround the stage.

     As of May 2009, U2 have sold more than 145 million albums worldwide.  They have also taken home 22 Grammy Awards, more than any other band.  In 2005, U2 was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility.  Throughout their career, the band and its members have campaigned for human rights and social justice causes, including Amnesty International and the ONE Campaign, a U.S.-based, nonpartisan, non-profit organization founded in 2004 with funding from The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.  ONE is seeking, among other goals, to increase the effectiveness of international aid programs aimed at extreme poverty and global diseases.  For more on U2, their music and other activities see their website link below and/or other listed sources.

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Date Posted:  3 June 2009
Last Update:  21 September 2009
Comments to:  jdoyle@pophistorydig.com

Article Citation:
Jack Doyle, “U2 Song – ‘One,’ 1992,”
PopHistoryDig.com, June 3, 2009.

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Sources, Links & Additional Information

‘One’ also appears on U2's ‘18 Singles’ album. Cover photo taken in Dublin in 1979. From left: Adam Clayton, Larry Mullen, Jr., Bono, and The Edge.
‘One’ also appears on U2's ‘18 Singles’ album. Cover photo taken in Dublin in 1979. From left: Adam Clayton, Larry Mullen, Jr., Bono, and The Edge.
U2 Website.

U2 artwork by Kostas Tsipos, graphic designer and photographer based in Greece.

“U2,” Wikipedia.com.

Achtung Baby,” Wikipedia.com

“U2’s One Named ‘Greatest Record’,” BBC News November 18, 2003.

David Wojnarowicz’s Buffalo Over a Cliff,” Dinesh’s Photo Album, June 27, 2008.

Neil McCormick (ed.), U2 by U2, New York: HarperCollins, 2006.

Tania Branigan, “U2 Crush Beatles in Top Album Poll,” The Guardian, Thursday, November 22, 2001.

Mark Chatterton, U2: The Complete Encyclopedia, New York: Firefly, 2001.

‘One’ also appears on U2's ‘Best of 1990-2000' album.
‘One’ also appears on U2's ‘Best of 1990-2000' album.
Bill Flanagan, U2: At the End of the World, New York: Delta, 1996.

Cover Story, “Exclusive: The Making of Achtung Baby,” Rolling Stone, November 1991.

Elysa Gardner, Album Review, “U2, Achtung Baby,” Rolling Stone, January 9, 1992.

Jon Pareles, Recordings View, “U2 Takes a Turn From the Universal to the Domestic,” New York Times, Sunday, November 17, 1991.

Stephen Holden, “Irish U2, a Young Quartet, Plays at the Ritz,” New York Times, March 9, 1981.

U2: Induction Year 2005,” Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Brian Eno, “The Making of Achtung Baby,” The U2 Station News Blog, January 1, 1991.

Rolling Stone magazine featured U2 on the cover of their November 28, 1991 issue, touting an ‘exclusive’ on the making of the album, ‘Achtung Baby’.
Rolling Stone magazine featured U2 on the cover of their November 28, 1991 issue, touting an ‘exclusive’ on the making of the album, ‘Achtung Baby’.
Josh Tyrangiel, “U2’s Unsatisfied — and Unsatisfying — New Album,” Time, Thursday, February 26, 2009.

Photo Gallery: “Thirty Years of U2,” Time, February 2009.

J. Freedom du Lac, “U2 Finds There’s Much Virtue on ‘The Horizon’,” Washington Post, February 24, 2009, p. C-1.

Chris Klimek, “U2’s Roots Revisited In ‘The Joshua Tree'; Album’s Musical Power Endures In New 20th-Anniversary Reissue,” Wash- ington Post, November 27, 2007. p. C-5.

Sridhar Pappu, “Bono’s Calling; The Irish Rocker Has a Mission: To Fight Poverty, and Enlist the Powerful in the Battle,” Washington Post, November 26, 2007, p. C-1.

“Bono and Friends Open Bid to Make World Poverty a Focus of ’08 Race,” Washington Post, Politics, June 12, 2007, p. A-6.

The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time,” Rolling Stone, November-December 2004.





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