The Pop History Dig

“Iron Butterfly”
1968-2007

Cover of Iron Butterfly’s June 1968 Atco album which included the famous ''In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida'' track.
Cover of Iron Butterfly’s June 1968 Atco album which included the famous ''In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida'' track.
     Iron Butterfly.  That’s the name of a rock group – a rock group from 1968.  The name made eminent sense then, of course.  It was the time of psychedelic music – music associated with mind-altering, hallucinogenic drugs.  Butterfly imagery was cool at the time, part of the “counter-cultural” fare and quite acceptable.  As for the “iron” part, well yes, that was psychedelically appropriate, too.  But perhaps you had to be doing drugs to grasp the full meaning and context of how “heavy” it all was….

     In any case, Iron Butterfly was a group that made the music of its day.  Four California musicians established the group in 1966.  Vocalist, organist, and bandleader, Doug Ingle, formed the first version of the group in San Diego with drummer Ron Bushy and two others.

     The Iron Butterfly sound was long and heavy.  The group’s style was similar to that of acts such as Blue Cheer and Steppenwolf.  Iron Butterfly’s music helped provide a bridge of sorts from the “psychedelia sound” to the heavy metal music that followed, influencing groups from Deep Purple to Led Zeppelin.  “Now remembered as a passing fancy of the acid-rock era,” observes one writer describing the group in the Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock and Roll, “at its peak Iron Butterfly was considered a leading hard rock band.” 

Record sleeve for single version of Iron Butterfly’s “In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida,”1968.
Record sleeve for single version of Iron Butterfly’s “In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida,”1968.
     The most famous of Iron Butterfly’s songs that emerged in June-July 1968 was “In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida,” a 17-minute, mostly instrumental feast of organ and electric guitar that typified the psychedelic sound that summer.   The song also used some repeating, mostly unintelligible lyrics.  The song’s title was derived – sort of – from “in the garden of Eden.”  The track was written by vocalist, organist, and bandleader, Doug Ingle.

     Legend has it that Ingle wrote the song when he was in his cups, or worse, spending the day drinking red wine, as former band mate Ron Bushy recounted in a 2006 interview.  But when Ingle was asked about the song’s title, he couldn’t pronounce it correctly, so Bushy wrote it down as he heard it, phonetically.  “In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida” was the translation, and the name stuck.  As for the music, in its day, the song hit the mark – especially in extended play.  And that was important in the event its listeners were in an “altered state,” as some might have called back then, also known as “stoned.”  In such condition, devotees of the band could listen to “In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida” for hours.  But that was 1968.

     Called a one-hit wonder by some, and worse by others, “In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida” is a tune that can’t be dismissed or laughed off, however.  For in its day, this song and its album by the same name, sold millions and millions of copies.  The album was released by Iron Butterfly in mid-June 1968, with the song “In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida” comprising the entire first side of the vinyl edition. It sold more than 4 million copies right out of the gate – and millions more later that year.“In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida” is no joke; it is ranked among the 50 best-selling albums in the world, and by some counts has sold more than 30 million copies worldwide.  According to one Wikipedia list, the album version of In-A-Gadda -Da-Vida, is ranked among the 50 best-selling albums in the world.  Iron Butterfly’s website reports that the album has sold more than 30 million copies worldwide.  In July 1968, a shortened version of the song, adapted for radio play, was released by ATCO records in a 2:53 minute format.  The single also climbed into the Top 30.  The album stayed on the Billboard albums chart for 140 weeks, 81 of them in the Top 10.  Part of Iron Butterfly’s initial national exposure was attributed to being an opening act for The Doors and Jefferson Airplane, two major and more popular groups of that era.  Iron Butterfly’s album, meanwhile, broke sales records and far exceeded the music industry’s then “gold album” standard, selling eight million copies in its first year.  In fact, In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida received the industry’s first “platinum album” award for exceeding one million in sales.  The award was created and presented by then-president of ATCO Records, Ahmet Ertegun, a famous record executive who helped advance the careers of many artists.


The Fidelity Ad

 

      “In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida” left enough of a psychic imprint on the boomer generation that Fidelity Investments found it worthy of use as a musical hook in one of its 2006 retirement planning TV ads.  The song would be one of several in the Fidelity pantheon of rock-driven commercials the firm would use around that time to pitch its financial products to baby boomers.  Known by some as the “Flower Power” ad, the Fidelity commercial uses an animated scene of 1960s-style psychedelic flowers and butterflies as a brief, 30-second  selection from the song plays. 

     As the flowers grow in the scene and the music plays, Fidelity begins its pitch in print with a question:  “Is your IRA blooming?”  The ad then continues to another scene with more flowers branching out.  “It can help to plant the right fund,” appears next on the screen.  The music continues.  “Consider the Fidelity Strategic Income Fund,” says the next scene, followed by a frame which shows that fund as a plant branching out with various numeric rates of income yield.  Then comes the narrator with the final punchline: “Need a little flower power?”  His answer: “Our retirement specialists can help.  Call 1-800-Fidelity.  Smart move.”  As the animation continues, the words “No Loads.  No IRA Fees” appear in a hedgerow.  Then on the final screen, “Fidelity Investments, Smart Move” appears amid the flowers as the ad ends.

1968 French record sleeve for Iron Butterfly’s “In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida,” single.
1968 French record sleeve for Iron Butterfly’s “In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida,” single.
     Other versions of the ad for different Fidelity funds used somewhat different visuals.  But the lyrics heard in the commercials – certainly not “investment grade,” some might say – typically used the following lines:

In-a-gadda-da-vida, honey
Don’t you know that I love you?
In-a-gadda-da-vida, baby
Don’t you know that I’ll always be true?

     In September 2005, Fidelity had begun using rock music to reach boomers, beginning with former Beatle Paul McCartney, who launched the Fidelity ad series using some Wings music on ABC-TV’s widely-watched Monday Night Football program.  In March and April 2006, as Fidelity continued to air its campaign, Fidelity spokeswoman Jenny Engle explained that her company chose “In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida” for use in the campaign specifically to target boomers, calling the song “a classic anthem for a lot of people” in that age group.  “The key is to catch people’s attention,” Engle said at the time. The spot was created by Arnold Worldwide in Boston, MA.  The Fidelity “Flower Power” TV ad also appeared during the February 2007 Grammy Awards show.


Boomer Bucks?

     After the ad’s initial run in 2006, San Diego Union Tribune reporter Michael Stetz tracked down some of the band’s founders, by then in their mid-60s.  “I guess the method to their madness,” said former Iron Butterfly drummer Ron Bushy,     …Fidelity must have thought that “all the baby boomers who got stoned listening to that song are now all grown up and have money.” referring to Fidelity’s use of the music, “is that all the baby boomers who got stoned listening to that song are now all grown up and have money.”  Bushy, 64, was then living in the Los Angeles area.  Bushy’s investments, however, were not with Fidelity.  Bushy and Lee Dorman, another band member, didn’t know that “In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida” was going to be used to sell mutual funds and IRAs until they saw the ad on TV.  Meanwhile, Iron Butterfly the band – although in somewhat different form as of 2006 – was still touring occasionally, and Bushy and Dorman figured the ad could only spread their music around to their benefit.  More royalties would come in for band members, and as Bushy pondered the possibilities: “Maybe we’ll get a lot more gigs,” he offered.  No word on how many new accounts came to Fidelity as a result of its boomer campaign.

Poster for March 1968 “St. Paddy's Medicine Show,” Pasadena Exhibition Hall, featuring Iron Butterfly, Peanut Butter Conspiracy, Steppenwolf, Jackson Browne & others.
Poster for March 1968 “St. Paddy's Medicine Show,” Pasadena Exhibition Hall, featuring Iron Butterfly, Peanut Butter Conspiracy, Steppenwolf, Jackson Browne & others.
     Over the years, “In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida,” has also found its way into a number of other commercial uses, including as background music in various TV series —  from The Simpsons to Seinfeld.  In House M.D., the song is heard in Episode 23 of Season 3, after a patient ingests some magic mushrooms as part of a treatment for cluster headaches.  In the TV series Supernatural, it is used in episode 6, “Skin,” of season 1.  The song was also used in television’s Criminal Minds series, season 1, episode 16, titled “The Tribe” in the opening scene.  “In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida,” has also been used in Hollywood films such as Manhunter in 1986 and Resident Evil: Extinction in 2007.  And in video games, the song  was scheduled to appear in 2009’s Band Hero, an expansion game in the Guitar Hero and Rock Band series of music video games.  In 2011, the song was among those used on ESPN’s Monday Night Football program.

     Other stories at this website on the use of popular music in advertising include, for example, “Madonna’s Pepsi Ad,” “Nike & The Beatles,” “Sting & Jaguar,” “Selling Janis Joplin,” and, “Big Chill Marketing.”  Thanks for visiting. - Jack Doyle


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Date Posted: 29 June 2011
Last Update: 18 October 2011
Comments to: jdoyle@pophistorydig.com

Article Citation:
Jack Doyle, “Iron Butterfly, 1968-2006,”
PopHistoryDig.com, June 29, 2011.

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Sources, Links & Additional Information

A late 1960s-early 1970s poster, psychedelic style, announcing Iron Butterfly appearance at the Santa Rosa, CA Fairgrounds.
A late 1960s-early 1970s poster, psychedelic style, announcing Iron Butterfly appearance at the Santa Rosa, CA Fairgrounds.
Ticket stub from Aug 24, 1968 concert at Merriweather Post Pavilion, in Maryland.
Ticket stub from Aug 24, 1968 concert at Merriweather Post Pavilion, in Maryland.

“Iron Butterfly,” in Holly George-Warren and Patricia Romanowski (eds), The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll, Rolling Stone Press, New York, 3rd Edition, 2001, pp.465-466.

Michael Stetz, “Iron Butterfly’s in An IRA Ad? Bummer,” San Diego Union-Tribune, April 2, 2006.

“Iron Butterfly,” FavoriteMusicians.com, 2008.

Steve Huey, “Iron Butterfly – Biography,”All Music Review.

“In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida”(song), Wikipedia.org.

Brian Steinberg and Ethan Smith, “Advertisers Are Hunting for Fresh Pop Hits,” Wall Street Journal, Friday, June 9, 2006.

Iron Butterfly Website.

“Animated Flowers,”Fidelity TV ad, YouTube.com.

“List of Best-Selling Albums Worldwide,” Wiki- pedia.org.

A Mad Peck Studios Poster announcing an Iron Butterfly appearance in June 1970 in the Providence, Rhode Island area.

Michael Paoletta, Making The Brand: “Flower Power,” Billboard, April 15, 2006, p. 21.

Mark Caro, “In-a-Gadda-Da-Grammys,” Chicago Tribune .com, Feburary 11, 2007.

“Music on ESPN NFL Broadcasts,” ESPN.com, September 11, 2011.

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“Sting & Jaguar”
1999-2001

Rock star ‘Sting,’ especially popular through the 1980s and 1990s, cut a deal with the Jaguar car company in 2000 to use his ‘Desert Rose’ song in their TV commercials, helping make the song & its album top hits.
Rock star ‘Sting,’ especially popular through the 1980s and 1990s, cut a deal with the Jaguar car company in 2000 to use his ‘Desert Rose’ song in their TV commercials, helping make the song & its album top hits.
     Sting, the rock star, whose real name is Gordon Sumner, is a U.K. musician, popular since the late 1970s.  He is the recipient of numerous music  awards and has taken home at least 16 Grammys in various categories.  He has also been nominated for the best song Oscar.  In his musical career, he has had a number of affiliations, among them, as principal songwriter, lead singer, and bass guitar player of the rock band Police.  Including his years with  Police,  as well as his own solo career, Sting has sold over  100 million records worldwide.  Among his hits with Police have been: “Message in a Bottle” (1979), “Every Little Thing She Does” (1981), and “Every Breath You Take” (1983).  Solo hits have included:  “If You Love Somebody Set Them Free”  (1985), “We’ll Be Together” (1987), “All This Time” (1991), “If Ever I Lose My Faith in You” (1993), and others.  Sting has established himself as an artist pushing out the boundaries of pop music, incorpor- ating elements of jazz, classical, and world music into his writing and songs.

CD cover for 'Desert Rose' maxi single, which includes a Sting duet with Algerian raï singer Cheb Mami.
CD cover for 'Desert Rose' maxi single, which includes a Sting duet with Algerian raï singer Cheb Mami.
     In the fall of 1999, however, Sting’s Brand New Day album was not exactly setting the music charts on fire.  Included on the album was “Desert Rose,” a haunting, calling love song with desert imagery and some Arabic verse.   The song is said to have been inspired, in part, by the science fiction novel and movie, Dune, both of which use desert imagery and Arabic language.  In the 1984 film version, in fact, Sting had an acting role as the character Feyd Rautha.  The song “Desert Rose” includes a Sting duet with Algerian raï singer Cheb Mami, and some reviewers noted the song’s “world music” flavor.  But when Sting and his team tried to get the song played on the radio, they had little success.  Sting’s new music, some suggested, was perhaps a bit too sophisticated for normal pop radio.  Radio pro- grammers reportedly showed Sting research that supposedly proved listeners did not want to hear “Desert Rose.”  That’s when Sting and manager, Miles Copeland, were forced to “plan B,” as they say.

Video Used a Jag

Jaguar S-Type, similar to the one used in 'Desert Rose' video.
Jaguar S-Type, similar to the one used in 'Desert Rose' video.
     Stings’ video maker had shot a music video for the “Desert Rose” song.  It featured Sting taking a trip through the desert in a stylish, chauferred car on his way to a nightclub to perform the song with Cheb Mami.  The car they chose to shoot the video was a new Jaguar S-Type.  In fact, when the video was completed, Sting’s manager, Miles Copeland, thought it looked a lot like a car commercial.  He then sent it to Jaguar’s advertising agency and asked them to make their car commercial look like the video in exchange for free use of the song.  The Jaguar people loved the tape as soon as they saw it.  Sting then licensed “Desert Rose” to Jaguar and the two sides then collaborated on the project for developing the TV commercials, which were similar to the video.  (Various versions of the video appear on You Tube and elsewhere.)

     Jaguar’s advertising agency, Ogilvy & Mather of New York developed two TV spots — a 30-second and a 60-second version in a campaign they titled, “Sting S-Type.”  It first began running on March 20, 2000 in the U.S.  By August 2000, the ads began appearing in several international markets as well.  The spots used footage from the Sting music video along with previous Jaguar footage. “Everyone dreams of becoming a rock star. What then do rock stars dream of?”
           – Jaguar’s ‘Sting-S-Type’ TV ad
“To have Sting in our car and the ‘Desert Rose’ music behind the product is what marketing executives dream about,” explained Jaguar’s Al Saltiel, general marketing manager.  “With the introduction of the S-Type last year and the upcoming launch of the X-400, one of our key strategic goals is to reach a broader market.  We believe this campaign will help us do that.”  The voice-over in the spots and the ad’s main line — “What do rock stars dream of” — grew out of the lyrics in Sting’s song.  “Desert Rose” is based on a dream,” explained Ogilvy & Mather’s Anton Crone, describing the ad’s theme.  “And from that we got the line, ‘Everyone dreams of becoming a rock star.  What then do rock stars dream of?’ ”  The answer: riding in a Jaguar S-Type, of course.

This Jaguar press kit was handed out at the New York International Auto Show 2000. It included ‘Desert Rose’ videos,  Jaguar TV ads using the song, a CD-single with three versions of the song, and photos with Sting and car.
This Jaguar press kit was handed out at the New York International Auto Show 2000. It included ‘Desert Rose’ videos, Jaguar TV ads using the song, a CD-single with three versions of the song, and photos with Sting and car.
     In early 2000, at the International Auto Show in New York, Jaguar also handed out and extensive press kit on their Sting and “Desert Rose” collaboration. It included a ‘Desert Rose’ video and two Jaguar TV ads using the song: a 60-second version and a 30-second version.  A promotional CD- single was also included in the packet that had three versions of the song — a radio version at 3:54 minutes; an LP verison at 4:46; and a club mix version at 4:44.  There were also six 35mm full color transparencies featuring Sting and car, full color sheets of the same photos, and some Jaguar background info.  However, the deal between Sting and Jaguar to run the ads raised some eyebrows, considering that Sting was an avid environmentalist who was endorsing a gas-guzzling vehicle.  The Jaguar ads, however, helped turn the tide for “Desert Rose” and the album Brand New Day.  The ad ran everywhere and people started demanding the song, and it was soon being played on the radio and beyond.

     “. . .‘Desert Rose’ was a moderately successful U.K. single, but in the States it became a phenomenon, turning into one of the biggest sleepers for some time,” explains one summary of the song at Sting’s website. The song ran for a good six months on the U.S. music charts and had “top ten” showing all across Europe. “[The Jaguar] TV commercial proved an excellent piece of marketing, with the song being continually exposed to mainstream TV audiences, who got 30 seconds of prime Sting when they least expected it.”  The song ran for a good six months on the U.S. music charts and had “top ten” showing all across Europe.  It became Sting’s biggest hit in 10 years.  It also lifted the album Brand New Day to become one of Sting’s best selling ever.  By January 2001, the album had sold more than three million copies (triple platinum). The album also won several Grammys for the year 2000.  At the Grammy awards ceremony, Sting performed “Desert Rose” with his collaborator, Cheb Mami.

Desert Rose
Sting

I dream of rain
I dream of gardens
   in the desert sand
I wake in pain
I dream of love as time runs
   through my hand

I dream of fire
Those dreams are tied to a
   horse that will never tire
And in the flames
Her shadows play in the
   shape of a man’s desire

This desert rose
Each of her veils, a secret promise
This desert flower
No sweet perfume ever tortured
   me more than this

And as she turns
This way she moves in the logic
   of all my dreams
This fire burns
I realize that nothing’s as it seems

I dream of rain
I dream of gardens in the desert sand
I wake in pain
I dream of love as time runs
   through my hand

I dream of rain
I lift my gaze to empty skies above
I close my eyes, this rare perfume
Is the sweet intoxication of her love

I dream of rain
I dream of gardens in the desert sand
I wake in pain
I dream of love as time runs
   through my hand

Sweet desert rose
Each of her veils, a secret promise
This desert flower
No sweet perfume ever tortured
   me more than this

Sweet desert rose
This memory of Eden haunts us all
This desert flower, this rare perfume
Is the sweet intoxication of the fall

     In September 2000, Sting performed the song with Cheb Mami, among others, at a Sting concert in New York’s Central Park before 20,000 fans who were given free tickets by the chain store Best Buy, then making its debut in the New York market.  Ann Powers, reporting for The New York Times, made the follow- ing observations on the concert and Sting:

     …No one seemed the least bothered by Best Buy’s ubiquity at Central Park; such deals do not undermine Sting’s credibility because they are utterly congruous with his image.  Sting’s music is the sound of money well spent.  His signature mix of torchy balladry and uplifting dance pop can absorb almost any outside influences, and he furnishes his songs with cosmopolitan touches like the Algerian rai music that underlies “Desert Rose” or the Cuban conjunto rhythms that occasionally enlivened Tuesday’s show.  It’s the old colonialist way, updated for an age of corporate, rather than state, domination: if you love something, buy it up.  It’s possible to view Sting’s genre-shopping as artistically commendable.  After all, this is pop, whose essence is assimilation.  In his groundbreaking band the Police, Sting rubbed reggae against punk to create a hybrid whose energy reflected the anxiety caused by such miscegenation.  As he matured, Sting grew suspicious of rock’s amateurishness and moved toward an ideal based in poised musical interplay instead of conflict.  His belief in a true world music led him to form outstanding bands, including the one appearing Tuesday.  It also pushed his music toward a rootlessness that can seem decadent.
     His cosmopolitanism illuminates when it holds that seed of self-awareness.  It’s there in “Desert Rose,” in the amazing second vocal by Cheb Mami, the Algerian rai vocalist who joined Sting as an opening act at the concert.  Sting, the Englishman, can nearly match the North African’s sinewy technique, but Sting’s fairy-tale lyrics about a veiled seductress are undermined by the immediacy of Cheb Mami’s voice.  Performing the song with him, Sting finally surrendered, allowing his partner to lead its final crescendo.  Humbly giving over to his inspiration, Sting proved himself a sensitive collaborator…

     Sting also performed the song on the 2001 Superbowl pre-game show, reaching an audience in the millions. “Desert Rose” also became a regular song featured on Sting’s ‘Brand New Day’ world tour.  So in many ways, the Jaguar deal proved a powerful catalyst for Sting’s new music; providing lift off for “Desert Rose” and the album.

     Before making the deal with Jaguar, Sting’s record company had planned on selling about 1 million albums. Their marketing and promotion budget had been estimated at about $1.8 million, including $800,000 to make the “Desert Rose” video.  Jaguar, by comparison, shelled out about $8 million for the TV commercial time, and gave the song exposure to a global audience Sting might not have reached with its own marketing.  To date, Sting’s Brand New Day album has sold over 4 million copies.

Jaguar’s Ad Music
“Greatest Hits” – 1999-2008

Desert Rose
Sting
History Repeating
Propellerhead & Shirley Bassey
I Turn My Camera On
Spoon
The Girl’s Attractive
Diamond Nights
Hardcore Days & Softcore Nights
Aqueduct
Signs Of Love
Moby
I’m In Love With My Car
Queen
Battle Without Honor…#2
Tomoyasu Hotei
London Calling
The Clash
Two Rocks And A Cup Of Water
Massive Attack
Hush
Deep Purple
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Sources: “Jaguar TV Ad’s Greatest Hits,”
Rhapsody Radish, February 20, 2007, and
Jaguar.com.

     Jaguar for its part, was quite happy to have used the Sting song, and the experience appears to have had an impact on Jaguar’s thinking about how to package itself thereafter.  Owned by the U.S. auto giant Ford, Jaguar is the venerable U.K. car company known for its luxury cars, but also for its somewhat stuffy image.  However, in the last several years, Jaguar has continued to use popular music in other car ads — from Deep Purple’s “Hush”, a 1968 hit, to Spoon’s more current tune, “I Turn My Camera On.”  Songs by Clash, Queen, Moby and Propellerhead have also been used.  Granted, not all of these have worked as well as Sting’s “Desert Rose.”  Yet taken together, such pop and progressive music tracks are helping to give Jaguar a new brand image, which in turn helps the company reach into new groups of potential buyers.

 

New Song vs. Old Song

     On the artist side of the equation, a few years after Sting’s success using the Jaguar ad, other artists followed allowing their music and/or image to be used in product advertising, including Bob Dylan, Sheryl Crow, and Paul McCartney.  However, some of the artists, like Sting, were using TV ads not so much to capitalize on older music, but as a way to help launch new songs or albums.  Music fans are often offended to find their favorite old songs appearing in TV ads.  They call it “selling out” and regard the advertising as a crass exploitation of the emotional connection built up over their years with song and artist.  However, a new song used in a commercial, unknown and without a track record — no “emotional constituency,” so to speak — might be seen somewhat differently.  Artists argue that given the tougher climate in the music industry and the keen competition out there, a new song needs all the help it can get.  And TV spots are a good way to get noticed.  Still, one car company ad or beer commercial does not always mean immediate pop success for the artist.  And the chosen sponsor can also carry baggage that the artists’ fan base does not like.  For the sponsor too, the chosen music can boomerang on the company or turn off other customers.  Music fans, meanwhile, remain divided on the practice, whether old song or new, with some being more vehement about it than others.

     Stay tuned to this website for additional stories on the use of music in advertising, covering both past history and more recent uses.  Thanks for visiting.

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Date Posted: 27 September 2008
Last Update: 1 December 2010
Comments to: jdoyle@pophistorydig.com

Article Citation:
Jack Doyle, “Sting & Jaguar, 1999-2001,”
PopHistoryDig.com, September 27, 2008.

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Sources, Links & Additional Information

Sting, shown here, played the villainous Feyd Rautha in the 1984 film adaptation of 'Dune'.
Sting, shown here, played the villainous Feyd Rautha in the 1984 film adaptation of 'Dune'.
“Song Details, Desert Rose,” Sting.com.

Jaguar website, Jaguar.com.

Desert Rose Remix video at You Tube.

“In Rock Stars’ Dreams — The Jaguar S-Type,” Automotive Intelligence News, March 16, 2000.

Cherie DeLory, “Sting Rides a Jaguar S-Type,” ‘boards, March 23, 2000.

Ann Powers, Pop Review, “It’s Sting’s World: Exoticism, Torchy Ballads and the Good Life,” New York Times, September 14, 2000.

Phil Patton, “Like the Song, Love the Car,” New York Times, September 15, 2002.

John Schacht, “Sting Pioneers Revolutionary Trail to TV Commercials,” Creative Loafing.com, published 09.01.04.

Bill Flanagan, “Selling Records Or Selling Out?,” CBS Sunday Morning, February 26, 2006.

Janet Morrissey, “If It’s Retail, Is It Still Rock?,” New York Times, October 28, 2007.

“Jaguar TV Ad’s Greatest Hits,” Rhapsody Radish, February 20, 2007.

“Desert Rose,” SongFacts.com.

“Desert Rose” and “Sting,” Wikipedia.org.

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