The Pop History Dig

“Goldfinger”
1959-1965

Nov. 6, 1964 cover of Life magazine with  actress Shirley Eaton as the gold-painted victim from  “Goldfinger” film, with cover story tag line, “A Matter for James Bond.”
Nov. 6, 1964 cover of Life magazine with actress Shirley Eaton as the gold-painted victim from “Goldfinger” film, with cover story tag line, “A Matter for James Bond.”
     In late 1964 a memorable James Bond movie named Goldfinger arrived in U.S. theaters.  It was the third in a series of films featuring British secret agent James Bond, then played by Scottish actor, Sean Connery.  The Bond films, produced by British filmmaker EON Productions, were based on the novels of British writer, Ian Fleming, a WWII-era Royal Navy intelligence officer.  Fleming penned the famous spy novels in the 1950s and early 1960s.  His first “Bond book,” Casino Royale, published in 1953, introduced the James Bond character, also known by his code name, “007.”  More Bond books followed, as did films, making for a famous series of both.

     In all, Fleming wrote a dozen Bond books between 1953 and 1966, among them: Live and Let Die (1954), Moonraker (1955), Diamonds Are Forever (1956), From Russia with Love (1957), Dr. No (1958), Goldfinger (1959), For Your Eyes Only (short story collection, 1960), Thunderball (1961), The Spy Who Loved Me (1962), On Her Majesty’s Secret Service (1963), You Only Live Twice (1964), and The Man with the Golden Gun (1965). There were also two additional collections of short stories: Octopussy and The Living Daylights published in 1966.  Fleming died from a heart attack at the age of 56 in 1964, so two of his Bond books and the collections were published posthumously.  Since then, other authors have produced additional Bond novels and there have been more than 25 Bond films.  The James Bond entertainment empire has become one of the world’s most valuable, with its books, films, and music continuing to sell to the present day.

 

Ian Fleming on the cover of Andrew Lycett’s 1996 biography of him.
Ian Fleming on the cover of Andrew Lycett’s 1996 biography of him.
Ian Fleming

     Initially, Ian Fleming’s James Bond novels were not bestsellers in America.  In the U.K., Fleming’s books enjoyed a popular following and mostly positive reviews through the 1950s – especially his first five books: Casino Royale, Live and Let Die, Moonraker, Diamonds Are Forever and From Russia, with Love.  But beginning around March 1958, about the time Dr. No was published, he began to receive some unfavorable reviews from book critics, one saying his Bond books suffered from “the total lack of any ethical frame of reference.”  Another review of Dr. No in the New Statesman was titled “Sex, Snobbery and Sadism,” with the reviewer calling it “the nastiest book I have ever read.”  For a time thereafter, Fleming fell into disfavor.  But his fortunes would soon change and his work would rise once again, receiving a major boost from America.

     In early 1961, after one of Fleming’s Bond books was mentioned by Life magazine’s White House reporter, Hugh Sidey, in an article about President John F. Kennedy’s reading habits, sales of all Fleming’s novels took off in America.  Sidey’s article in the March 17, 1961 issue of Life had listed Fleming’s From Russia With Love as one of Kennedy’s ten favorite books.  Sidey’s piece also mentioned that the President had invited Fleming to the White House for dinner.

Sean Connery, cast as James Bond in the early Bond films, is shown here in a scene from the 1962 film, “Dr. No.” Connery set the mold for other Bonds to follow.
Sean Connery, cast as James Bond in the early Bond films, is shown here in a scene from the 1962 film, “Dr. No.” Connery set the mold for other Bonds to follow.
     Back in the U.K. meanwhile, Fleming had sold an option on the film rights to some of his Bond novels to a newly formed film company named Eon Productions.  After an extensive search, Eon hired Scottish actor Sean Connery to do five James Bond films beginning with Dr. No, which was released in 1962.  Connery’s depiction of Bond in the early films, in fact, would have some effect on the character Fleming was continuing to create in his books.  In the novel You Only Live Twice, which Fleming crafted after the Dr. No film, Fleming began to give the Bond character a sense of humor and some Scottish background, qualities that had not appeared in the earlier Bond stories.

Cover of the original “Goldfinger” novel as published in March 1959.
Cover of the original “Goldfinger” novel as published in March 1959.
     The Bond films, in any case, sent Fleming’s books and the entire James Bond enterprise in a wholly new and more prosperous direction.  Although the first film, Dr. No, received a mixed reception at its U.K. premiere in October 1962, it still became a popular film at the U.K. box office, and was later released in the U.S.Dr. No, which cost $1 million to make, grossed about $60 million worldwide ($152 million adjusted gross), so the filmmakers knew they had a good thing going.  From Russia, With Love, the next film in the series, came out in 1963, and this film did even better, earning more than $78 million ($214 million, adjusted).

     But the James Bond mania in the U.S. really didn’t take hold in a big way until 1964-65, with the release of the Goldfinger film.  This film also had a notable soundtrack and “Goldfinger” theme song by Welsh singer Shirley Bassey that added to its lustre and marketing (more on the music later).  The plot of the Goldfinger story, for book and film, focus on arch villain named Auric Goldfinger, who schemes to play havoc with the world’s finances by messing with the U.S. gold reserves at the Fort Knox bullion depository in Kentucky.

     The Goldfinger book was the seventh novel in Fleming’s James Bond series.  It was first published by the U.K. publisher Jonathan Cape, Ltd in London in late March 1959, although Fleming had written it a year or so earlier.  The cover of the original hardback edition, shown above, featured a skeleton of a human skull with gold coins placed in the eye sockets.  The book did reasonably well in the U.K, where Fleming already had millions of readers.  Although when it was released in the U.S. in August 1959 by MacMillan – prior to the 1961 JFK boost of the Fleming books – it had not done well.  But there were much better days ahead.

Premiere of the James Bond “Goldfinger” film in New York, Dec.1964.
Premiere of the James Bond “Goldfinger” film in New York, Dec.1964.
     The release of the Goldfinger film changed everything for the business fortunes of James Bond and Ian Fleming.  The film was first released in the U.K. in September 1964, followed by a  release in the U.S. 

     The American premiere was held on December 21st, 1964 at the DeMille Theater in New York City.  To promote the film, the two Aston Martin DB5 sports cars were also showcased at the 1964 New York World’s Fair, as the car and its gadgets became something of star in the film as well.  Two of  the sports cars can also be seen on the street in front of the theater in the premiere photo above.  Following the opening at the DeMille Theater, demand for the film was so high that the theater stayed open twenty-four hours a day for around-the-clock showings from Christmas Eve straight through until after New Year’s Day. 

Theatrical poster advertising the “Goldfinger” film.
Theatrical poster advertising the “Goldfinger” film.
     The release of the Goldfinger  film in the U.S. benefitted from its advance notice and press coverage, such as the Life magazine story that appeared in November 1964 with the gold-painted actress Shirley Eaton appearing on the cover (photo at top of this article), along with a series of other action shots from the film appearing inside the magazine.  Following the film’s release in the U.S., it was rolled out in other European countries and beyond.  At the premiere in Paris, Sean Connery drove an Aston Martin DB5 down the Champs-Elysees and some sixty women there were also gilded in gold as the Shirley Eaton character was in the movie.

     Goldfinger was both a critical and financial success.  Its $3 million budget was recouped within two weeks of its release, and it broke box office records in multiple countries around the world.  At the time, it was the fastest grossing film ever.  In its original worldwide theatrical release in 1964-65, Goldfinger pulled in $124.9 million.  In today’s dollars that would translate to almost $900 million.  As one point of comparison, as of April 2009 the Bond film Quantum of Solace pulled in some $576 million worldwide.

     Goldfinger’s success led to a variety of product tie-ins for clothing, dress shoes, action figures, board games, jigsaw puzzles, lunch boxes, toys, record albums, and trading cards.  Toy manufacturer, Corgi Toys began a long relationship with the Bond franchise, producing a toy car which became the biggest selling toy of 1964.  And sales of real Aston Martin sports cars rose as well, partly attributed to the film’s use of the car.

Pan Books paperback edition of “Goldfinger” in Australia used aSean Connery / James Bond image and movie information on its back cover.
Pan Books paperback edition of “Goldfinger” in Australia used aSean Connery / James Bond image and movie information on its back cover.
     The success of Goldfinger and the other Bond films also led to surging sales of Fleming’s Bond novels.  Nearly six million Bond books were sold in the United Kingdom in 1964, with about one million of those being Goldfinger books.  From 1962 to 1967, more than 22 million Bond novels were sold.  Goldfinger books that came out after the film’s release usually touted the film on the book’s front and back covers, with some showing photos of Sean Connery as Bond.  Signet and Pan paperback editions did this, with Signet running a tag line on the front cover, “Now A Great Motion Picture,” along with a small photo of Bond holding his pistol.  The Pan paperback edition of Goldfinger in London had at least 26 printings through 1976, with additional copies sold under other imprints.  A Viking/Pengin paperback of Goldfinger came out in 2002, as had others by then.

 

Auric Goldfinger listening to tips on his cheating hotline from balcony overlooking card game in his first unhappy encounter w/James Bond.
Auric Goldfinger listening to tips on his cheating hotline from balcony overlooking card game in his first unhappy encounter w/James Bond.
The Story

     In the opening scenes of the Goldfinger film, James Bond is shown on a prior assignment – infiltrating and destroying the house of a drug lord in Mexico.  The story quickly segues to his next assignment, as Bond is in Miami Beach, enjoying a bit of R & R, though his holiday is interrupted by agent Felix with orders from “M” in London that Bond should keep his eye on a character named Auric Goldfinger, who as it happened, was also in Miami.  Mr. Goldfinger is ostensibly a horse-breeder and international jeweler – and of course, much more.  London suspects him of being a gold smuggler, and as soon becomes clear, he is a scheming bad actor.

     In Miami, poolside, at the hotel where they are staying, Bond discovers that Goldfinger is cheating in a card game he is playing with another businessman.  Bond notices an earpiece, which Goldfinger claims is a hearing aid.  But Bond suspects something else and notices a hotel balcony several stories up within Goldfinger’s line of sight.

James Bond, taking in the “card game” view from the hotel balcony with Jill, who is helping Goldfinger cheat.
James Bond, taking in the “card game” view from the hotel balcony with Jill, who is helping Goldfinger cheat.
Jill is later murdered by Goldfinger with gold paint.
Jill is later murdered by Goldfinger with gold paint.
Oddjob, Goldfinger’s man-servant, is about to decapitate a statue with a throw of his steel-brimmed derby.
Oddjob, Goldfinger’s man-servant, is about to decapitate a statue with a throw of his steel-brimmed derby.
Goldfinger tells James Bond he is about to die by way of an industrial laser slicing him in two, but Bond gains a reprieve by letting on he knows more than he does.
Goldfinger tells James Bond he is about to die by way of an industrial laser slicing him in two, but Bond gains a reprieve by letting on he knows more than he does.
Ms. Pussy Galore (Honor Blackman), heads up female flyers who will dispense poison gas over Fort Knox.
Ms. Pussy Galore (Honor Blackman), heads up female flyers who will dispense poison gas over Fort Knox.
James Bond being knocked around by Oddjob during their tussle at the Fort Knox vault.
James Bond being knocked around by Oddjob during their tussle at the Fort Knox vault.
Oddjob is electrocuted when his stuck steel-brimmed derby is electrically charged by a wire Bond has thrown.
Oddjob is electrocuted when his stuck steel-brimmed derby is electrically charged by a wire Bond has thrown.
Mr. Goldfinger has his revolver trained on Bond while the plane is being hi-jacked.
Mr. Goldfinger has his revolver trained on Bond while the plane is being hi-jacked.
In the end, James Bond has saved the day, ending up safely on earth with Ms. Galore.
In the end, James Bond has saved the day, ending up safely on earth with Ms. Galore.

     Upon closer inspection of the hotel balcony, Bond discovers a beautiful blond in a bathing suit on a chase lounge off one of the balcony rooms – Goldfinger’s room, it turns out.  She is on duty there, working for Goldfinger with a pair of high-powered spyglasses relaying to Goldfinger’s “hearing aid” the cards his opponent is holding.  Bond spoils the party, ending the card-cheating transmissions, leaving Goldfinger to fend for himself.

     Meanwhile Bond strikes up a relationship with his new found lady friend, Jill, the Goldfinger girl played by Shirley Eaton.  The two adjourn to Bond’s hotel room where they share some champagne and romance. 

     But after Bond leaves the room for a moment to retrieve another bottle of champagne from the suite’s kitchen, he is knocked out by an intruder. 

     When he awakens, he finds his new girl friend is sprawled across the bed, but painted head to toe in gold paint.  She is dead; asphyxiated by the paint.  Goldfinger has had his revenge, posting a warning to Bond in the process.

     Bond then returns to London where he is assigned to find out how Goldfinger transports his gold internationally, which takes him to Geneva, Switzerland, where he infiltrates Auric Enterprises. 

     In Geneva, Bond learns that Goldfinger smuggles gold by incorporating it into the body of his automobile, a gold-plated Rolls Royce.  Bond also begins to learn that Goldfinger has something else planned: something called Operation Grand Slam. 

     In Geneva, Bond also meets the sister of the slain Goldfinger girl from Miami who tries to kill Goldfinger, but is herself murdered by Goldfinger’s bodyguard, Oddjob, who has a steel-brimmed derby he throws around as a killing device. 

     Bond becomes Goldfinger’s prisoner, and he is flown to the States by Goldfinger’s personal pilot, Ms. Pussy Galore, who also heads up a group of female aviators who later figure into the Goldfinger plot.  

     Bond is taken to the Auric Stud Farm in Kentucky where he further learns of Goldfinger’s plans.  Goldfinger at one point tries to slice Bond in half with a deadly industrial laser, but Bond talks his way out of it, claiming that London would suspect the worst if he were dead and foil Goldfinger’s plans.

     At the Kentucky horse farm, Goldfinger has a meeting with several mob leaders from across America.  Goldfinger owes each of them one million in gold, which he promises to increase if they go along with his latest plan for Forth Knox. 

     However, one of the mob leaders disagrees, and Goldfinger, seemingly, pays him his gold bullion and allows him to leave.  Oddjob then appears to be taking the disgruntled mob boss to the airport, but instead, the mobster ends up murdered in car-crushing junkyard where he and his car are reduced to a small cube. 

     Back at the horse farm, Goldfinger gasses the other mob leaders believing them a risk to his plan, also cancelling out his mob debt.  The mobsters are gassed in the self-sealing briefing room.

     Meanwhile, Bond has learned that Operation Grand Slam will be an attempt to irradiate the U.S. gold supply at Fort Knox, making the gold radioactive for decades, thereby increasing the value of Goldfinger’s holdings while plunging the U.S. into economic chaos.

     Goldfinger’s personal pilot, aviatrix Pussy Galore and her “Flying Circus” of female flyers, will take their planes over the Fort Knox area on the appointed day, spraying lethal gas to take out the military.  Goldfinger and his forces will then helicopter in with their dirty bomb for the Fort Knox vault.

     Bond, however, has won the affections of Ms. Galore, and she substitutes a harmless gas for the aerial spray while informing U.S. authorities of Goldfinger’s sinister plot.

     Still, at the Ft. Knox vault during Goldfinger’s raid, Bond must deal with the bomb, now installed and ticking away, and also with Oddjob, who is out to kill him. 

     Bond and Oddjob struggle in a dramatic fight, with Oddjob electrocuted in a final scene when he tries to retrieve his steel-brimmed hat which had become stuck in the metal bars of the repository from an earlier throw.  As Oddjob grabs the hat on the metal bars, Bond throws a live electrical wire on the bars charging them with current and doing in Mr. Oddjob.

     Mr. Goldfinger, meanwhile, has dressed in a colonel’s uniform beneath his regular clothes, and is able to use this disguise in a last minute maneuver to kill the U.S. troops attempting to open the vault, while then escaping the scene himself.  A bomb expert arrives, meanwhile, and manages to stop the dirty bomb clock at 0:07 seconds remaining.

     With the Fort Knox threat foiled, and the gold supply safe for the moment, Bond is invited to the White House for a meeting with the President.  He is squired to Washington aboard an Air Force jet, and all appears well. 

     However, on the way to Washington the plane is hijacked by Goldfinger, who has disguised himself as a U. S. general and has coerced Pussy Galore to pilot and divert the jet to Cuba.

     In the plane, a struggle ensues over Goldfinger’s revolver, and in the course of their fight, one of the plane’s windows is shot out, creating a decompression in which Goldfinger is sucked out of the cabin to his death.

     As the plane tailspins toward earth and out of control, Bond rescues Ms. Galore and the two parachute safely to the ground below, where they become reacquainted as the film ends and the film score plays.

 

Cover of the original Goldfinger soundtrack album.
Cover of the original Goldfinger soundtrack album.
The Music

     Goldfinger was made especially memorable for many film goers by way of its music.  For the first time in a Bond movie, a theme song was sung over the opening credits.  And in this case, the song was “Goldfinger,” performed in brassy fashion by Welsh singer Shirley Bassey.  The song was a most powerful addition to the film, and set the tone for the rest of the film score.  The American Film Institute has included the song among its 100 best film songs, ranked at No. 53.

     The release of Bassey’s “Goldfinger” single in 1965 sold more than a million copies in the U. S. alone.  The song rose to No. 8 on the U.S. Billboard charts, remaining on that chart for 13 weeks.  It also became an international hit, reaching No. 1 in Japan and rising into the Top Ten in many European countries.

Music Player
“Goldfinger”-1964-1965

Audio clip: Adobe Flash Player (version 9 or above) is required to play this audio clip. Download the latest version here. You also need to have JavaScript enabled in your browser.

     The “Goldfinger” song was composed by John Barry, with lyrics by Anthony Newley and Leslie Bricusse.  The film score was also composed by John Barry, and the resulting soundtrack album made heavy use of the brassy sound set out in Shirley Bassey’s opening song.

     The Goldfinger soundtrack album went to No. 1 on the U.S. Billboard albums chart, spending 70 weeks there.  It also rose to No. 14 on the U.K. albums chart, although the U.K. version had four tracks that didn’t appear on the American version.  John Barry’s Goldfinger was also nominated for a motion picture film score Grammy. 

Dame Shirley Bassey performing one of her Bond theme songs, undated  BBC photo.
Dame Shirley Bassey performing one of her Bond theme songs, undated BBC photo.
     “John Barry’s score ushered in a new style of swinging action music..,” observed Justin Craig of Fox News in one 2012 retrospective review of the film and its music.  “Barry breathed an entirely new sound and style into movies and truly gave the entire Bond franchise its soul and musical identity.  There’s no denying the impact Barry’s opening title song, performed by Shirley Bassey, has had on the future, of not only the Bond franchise, but music for the movies overall.”

     Goldfinger was the first Bond film to use a pop star to sing a Bond movie theme song, and the practice would follow on a number of other Bond films.  Bassey, in fact, would go on to sing two other Bond film theme songs, including, “Diamonds Are Forever” and “Moonraker.”  Bassey already had a number of hits as a U.K. performer when she sang “Goldfinger,” but the Bond theme became her first true international hit.  In fact, the “Goldfinger” theme, and “Diamonds Are Forever” became so famous for her that she had difficulty establishing a pop career outside of England beyond those tunes.  Bassey was slated to perform “Goldfinger” at the 85th Academy Awards ceremony in Hollywood on February 24, 2013.  Anthony Newley’s version of the “Goldfinger”song was included in a 30th anniversary compilation album, The Best of Bond…James Bond.

 

The Bond Legacies

By July 1965, Sean Connery, with French co-star Claudine Auger, appeared on the cover of Look magazine at the filming of the next Bond film, “Thunderball.”
By July 1965, Sean Connery, with French co-star Claudine Auger, appeared on the cover of Look magazine at the filming of the next Bond film, “Thunderball.”
     “Of all the Bonds,” wrote Chicago Sun-Times film critic Roger Ebert in a 1999 retrospective, “Goldfinger is the best, and can stand as a surrogate for the others.  If it is not a great film, it is a great entertainment, and contains all the elements of the Bond formula that would work again and again…”  Goldfinger and the Bond films are also credited as a key influence on the proliferation of spy films and TV series that flourished through the mid-and late 1960s.

     Roger Ebert also wrote that James Bond was perhaps the most durable of the 20th century’s movie heroes, and the one likely to last into the 21st century.  “He is a hero,” Ebert said of Bond, “but not a bore.  Even faced with certain death, he can cheer himself by focusing instead on the possibility that first he might get lucky.  He’s obsessed with creature comforts, a trial to his superiors, a sophisticate in all material things and able to parachute into enemy territory and be wearing a tuxedo five minutes later.  When it comes to movie spies, Agent 007 is full-service, one-stop shopping.”

     Added to Ebert’s perspective on Bond is the following description offered by The Museum of Modern Art of New York for its October 2012 exhibition, “50 Years of James Bond”:

Created by novelist Ian Fleming in 1953, the iconic James Bond, 007, is among the few MI-6 agents with the “00” grade—a license to kill.  In addition to his deadly skills, the sophisticated, suave, and impeccably dressed Bond remains a loner, despite countless romantic encounters with stunning female spies, voluptuous assassins, provocative party-girls, and a charismatic psychopath or two.  The alluring aura of danger and self-confidence he exudes is irresistible to women, but none are allowed to get too close.

Whether portrayed by Sean Connery, George Lazenby, Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, Pierce Brosnan, or Daniel Craig, Bond is forever loyal to Queen and country, possessed of a martini-dry sense of humor, considerably stylish, and eternally enigmatic.  When his boss, M, is in need of a formidable agent to quell a globe-spanning espionage crisis, 007 is sent into the field with his trusty Walther PPK [pistol], an array of handy spy gadgets, and an unwavering commitment to his mission.

Life magazine, in January 1966, put Sean Connery on its cover as “Thunderball” was playing in theaters. He had been photographed earlier at the film’s shooting in the Bahamas.
Life magazine, in January 1966, put Sean Connery on its cover as “Thunderball” was playing in theaters. He had been photographed earlier at the film’s shooting in the Bahamas.
     The Bond formula, in any case, seems to have worked quite well, whether in print or on film.  By one estimate, Eon Production’s series of 23 James Bond films so far, through Skyfall of 2012, has grossed an inflation-adjusted $12.3 billion worldwide, and by that measure is the single most successful film series in history. 

     As for the James Bond literary legacy, 007 publications have continued beyond Ian Fleming’s founding contributions, whose Bond books alone have sold more 100 million copies worldwide to date.  Eight other writers – John Gardner and Raymond Benson among them – have contributed at least 20 more Bond novels since Fleming’s death, and there are more on the way.  In May 2011, American writer Jeffery Deaver, released Carte Blanche, a book commissioned by Ian Fleming Publications that puts Bond in a post-9/11 world working independent of either MI-5 or MI-6.  In 2012, the Fleming estate announced that William Boyd would write the next Bond novel, to be published by Jonathan Cape in London and expected for release in the fall of 2013.  James Bond, it appears, will be with us for many years to come.

     Other spy novel history at this website, and related film production, can be found in the story, “The Bourne Profitability.”  Additional story choices in the film and/or publishing categories can be found at “Print & Publishing” or “Film & Hollywood,” or at the Home Page

     Thanks for visiting. - Jack Doyle

Please Support
this Website

Donate Now

Thank You

____________________________________

Date Posted: 23 February 2013
Last Update: 23 February 2013
Comments to: jdoyle@pophistorydig.com

Article Citation:
Jack Doyle, “Goldfinger, 1959-1965,”
PopHistoryDig.com, February 23, 2013.

____________________________________

 

 

Sources, Links & Additional Information

Sean Connery with James Bond creator, Ian Fleming.
Sean Connery with James Bond creator, Ian Fleming.
Sean Connery with famous James Bond sports car, the Austin Martin DB-5, complete with ejector seat!
Sean Connery with famous James Bond sports car, the Austin Martin DB-5, complete with ejector seat!
James Bond receiving a briefing from “Q” on the finer points of the DB-5, including its various armaments.
James Bond receiving a briefing from “Q” on the finer points of the DB-5, including its various armaments.
July 17, 1965: Sean Connery on the cover of The Saturday Evening Post magazine for feature story: “The James Bond Cult: Girls, Guns and Gadgets.”
July 17, 1965: Sean Connery on the cover of The Saturday Evening Post magazine for feature story: “The James Bond Cult: Girls, Guns and Gadgets.”
 

“Books: The Upper-Crust Low Life” (Dr. No book review), Time, Monday, May 5, 1958.

Hugh Sidey, “The President’s Voracious Reading Habits; He Eats Up News, Books at 1,200 Words A Minute,” Life, March 17, 1961, pp. 55-60.

“Books: Of Human Bondage”( The Spy Who Loved Me book review), Time, Friday, April, 13, 1962.

“Can Bond Save Fort Knox From Goldfinger? – Agent 007 Takes on A Solid-Gold Cad,” Life, November 6, 1964, pp. 116-120.

“Cinema: Knocking Off Fort Knox,” Time, Friday, December 18, 1964.

Bosley Crowther, “Screen: Agent 007 Meets ‘Goldfinger'; James Bond’s Exploits on Film Again,” New York Times, December 22, 1964.

“Theater Open 24 Hours For ‘Goldfinger’ Showings,” New York Times, December 23, 1964.

“James Bond Film Series,” Wikipedia.org.

“Goldfinger (film),” Wikipedia.org.

“Book Covers, Ian Fleming Bond books, etc.,” Illustrated.007.

Roger Ebert, Film Review, “Goldfinger (1964),” SunTimes.com, January 31, 1999.

Sam Howe Verhovek, “Newest Caper: James Bond in the Temple of Culture,” New York Times, June 8, 1987.

“Premiere Bond: Opening Nights,” IM- DB.com, 2006.

Dave Kinney, “James Bond Aston Martin DB5 Sells for $4.6 Million,” New York Times, October 28, 2010.

Justin Craig, “Bond Turns 50: ‘Goldfinger’ Still Stands Out as Best of the 007 Bunch,” FoxNews.com, September 12, 2012.

Andy Greene, “The Top 10 James Bond Theme Songs,”Rolling Stone, October 5, 2012.

“Auric Goldfinger,” Wikipedia.org.

Alex Davies, “How Aston Martin DB5 Became The Ultimate 007 Ride,” Business Insider.com, October 23, 2012.

“Goldfinger (soundtrack),” Wikipedia.org.

Exhibitions, “50 Years of James Bond: October 5–31, 2012,” Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY (organized by Anne Morra, Associate Curator, Department of Film).

“James Bond (literary character),” Wiki- pedia.org.

“List of James Bond Novels and Short Stories,” Wikipedia.org.

“James Bond,” Wikipedia.org.

“Film Franchises: Pottering On, and On,” The Economist (London), July 11, 2011.

“Goldfinger,”Filmsite.org.

 

______________________

 

 

 

“…No Satisfaction”
1965-1966

The young Rolling Stones in the mid-1960s brought plenty of “attitude” to their music. From left: Mick Jagger, Brian Jones, Keith Richards, Bill Wyman and Charlie Watts.
The young Rolling Stones in the mid-1960s brought plenty of “attitude” to their music. From left: Mick Jagger, Brian Jones, Keith Richards, Bill Wyman and Charlie Watts.
     Did one rock ’n roll song of the mid-1960s provide a kind of social dividing line —  a musical bright line separating old and new?  Did one song lay down, in a popular way, a kind of generational and values  demarcation?  

     Certainly there were any number of songs at that time heralding the new generation’s outlook and values — in  lyrics, distinctive sound, and in some cases, musical “attitude.”  

     Bob Dylan, for one — the leading tr0ubadour of the  1960s — had begun offering his interpretations by the early 1960s.  His “Blowin` in the Wind” and “The Times They Are A Changin`” were much in the air by 1963. 

Music Player
“Satisfaction”-1965
[scroll down for lyrics]

Audio clip: Adobe Flash Player (version 9 or above) is required to play this audio clip. Download the latest version here. You also need to have JavaScript enabled in your browser.

     But in May 1965, a young British rock group named the Rolling Stones recorded a rock song called “Satisfaction”– also known by its longer title, “I Can’t Get No Satisfaction.”  By July 1965, “Satisfaction” had been released in the U.S. and soon became a gigantic hit.  This song, however, was something more than merely good rock `n roll.  In its way, and perhaps in a more popular mainstream sense, “Satisfaction”  became the pop/rock equivalent of what Dylan and other folk/protest musicians were offering to somewhat less mainstream audiences.  “Satisfaction” was a hard-rock tune with a driving sound, but with lyrics that were also aimed at the status quo; a song that expressed a distinct “dis-satisfaction” with the way things were.

Sample record sleeve from 1965 for the Rolling Stones’ song “Satisfaction,” with B-side title, “The Under Assistant West Coast Promotion Man,” Decca Records.
Sample record sleeve from 1965 for the Rolling Stones’ song “Satisfaction,” with B-side title, “The Under Assistant West Coast Promotion Man,” Decca Records.
     The Rolling Stones had formed their band in the early 1960s playing mostly cover versions of American rhythm and blues(R&B) music and Chicago blues and rock n’ roll artists, including Chuck Berry, Muddy Waters, and others.  Their manager, Andrew Loog Oldham, a former Beatles publicist, later encouraged the Stones to write their own pop songs as the Beatles were doing.  Brian Jones, a talented guitarist who had once led the group and would later die in a drowning accident, preferred the R & B path.  But lead singer Mick Jagger and guitarist Keith Richards soon began writing pop rock ‘n roll songs, taking the group in what would prove to be a very successful direction.  “Satisfaction” would become their  landmark hit; their big breakthrough.


The Song

     Keith Richards played a key inventor’s role with this song.  In early May 1965, as the Rolling Stones were on tour in the U.S., it was Richards who came up with “Satisfaction’s” opening guitar riff — the distinctive, flat-sounding twang that powers the song throughout and its signature sound.  Story has it that Richards woke up in the middle of the night during the U.S. tour and recorded the guitar riff into a tape recorder that he kept at his bedside for unexpected moments of inspiration.  Then he went back to sleep.  Next morning he played the riff for Mick Jagger, offering one lyric he had in mind for the song – “I can’t get no satisfaction.”  Jagger would later say he thought that line was possibly influenced subconsciously by Richards’ listening to a 1955 Chuck Berry song titled “30 Days,” a tune which has a similar line – “I don’t get no satisfaction from the judge”.  The guitar riff developed by Richards in any case, was initially not set for guitar, but thought as a guide for horns.  Jagger, meanwhile, fleshed out more of “Satisfaction’s” lyrics one afternoon while on tour, later admitting to incorporating some of his own feelings at the time about the media and advertising.

“Satisfaction”
Rolling Stones-1965

I can’t get no satisfaction,
I can’t get no satisfaction.
‘Cause I try and I try and I try and I try.
I can’t get no, I can’t get no.

When I’m drivin’ in my car
and that man comes on the radio
and he’s tellin’ me more and more
about some useless information
supposed to drive my imagination.
I can’t get no, oh no no no.
Hey hey hey, that’s what I say.

(repeat refrain)
…I can’t get no satisfaction,
I can’t get no satisfaction.
‘Cause I try and I try and I try and I try.
I can’t get no, I can’t get no.

When I’m watchin’ my TV
and a man comes on to tell me
how white my shirts can be.
Well he can’t be a man ’cause he doesn’t
smoke the same cigarettes as me.
I can’t get no, oh, no no no.
Hey hey hey, that’s what I say.

I can’t get no satisfaction,
I can’t get no girl reaction.
‘Cause I try and I try and I try and I try.
I can’t get no, I can’t get no.

When I’m ridin’ round the world
and I’m doin’ this and I’m signing that
and I’m tryin’ to make some girl
who tells me baby better come back
                                       later next week
’cause you see I’m on a losing streak.
I can’t get no, oh no no no.
Hey hey hey, that’s what I say.

I can’t get no, I can’t get no,
I can’t get no satisfaction,
no satisfaction, no satisfaction,
no satisfaction….

     The Stones, still on tour in the U.S. at the time, continued to work on the song between performances.  In Chicago, they took it into the Chess recording studios, working on it there May 10, 1965.  Two days later in Los Angeles, California, they completed it during a long session at RCA’s studios.  It was in this session that Richards reportedly rigged up a version of a “fuzz box” to his guitar which gave the opening riff he’d invented its distinctive sound, helping send “Satisfaction” straight up the charts.

     In that summer of 1965, there was no shortage of rock ‘n roll music.  New songs were coming from all directions – Detroit’s Motown, the California surf scene, and a wave of new British artists.  Among the tunes at or near the top of the charts that summer were songs such as: “Help Me, Rhonda” by The Beach Boys, “Mr. Tambourine Man” by The Byrds, and “I Got You Babe” by Sonny & Cher.  But “Satisfaction” was different; the song stood out and apart.  It had something about it that made it more than just a song.  Though it was certainly musically appealing to the youth of that day, “Satisfaction” was also music with a message.

     A share of popular and folk music by then had begun to take a more serious and cynical tack.  Bob Dylan, as mentioned earlier, was having a profound influence, not only in folk and protest music, but also in mainstream rock `n roll.  Dylan’s songs in 1962-1965, such as: “Blowin’ in The Wind,” “A Hard Rain’s a-Gonna Fall“, “Masters of War,” and “The Times They Are A-Changin`,” as well as songs by other protest songwriters, had opened a new window for 1960s’ music, bringing social commentary to song writing.  The Rolling Stones and other groups at that time were greatly influenced by Dylan’s music.  And “Satisfaction” – though not a protest song per se – was clearly one of those songs that had picked up on the idea of adding some “message” to the music.

     Although the Vietnam War and the civil rights movement were both underway by mid-1965, “Satisfaction” was not a song aimed at those troubles per se.  Rather, “Satisfaction” at the time was more of a general angst tune; a song that captured the frustrations bubbling up with the younger generation on a number of fronts, Vietnam and civil rights included.  Conventional wisdom and social values were then being challenged all around and “Satisfaction” chimed in with lyrics aimed at superficial advertising and uptight sexual mores.“Satisfaction” had enough attitude and swagger to wilt any set of established values its listeners might target. It  became an all- purpose anti-etablishment anthem.

     The plea of the narrator/singer in this song is a guy who is frustrated with the “useless information” and advertising hype he hears on radio and TV, plus his own personal plight of not being able to score with the ladies  The guy is essentially throwing up his hands in frustration with life in general: he just isn’t getting any satisfaction on any level.  Millions of young people then were trying to make their way in the world, and many weren’t happy or “satisfied” with what they saw around them.

     The song’s lyrics, for their day, were controversial, in part, because they challenged the prevailing cultural mores.  Perceived as an attack on the status quo, the song could be threatening to older listeners.  “Satisfaction”  offered plenty of attitude – not only in its lyrics, but also in its sound and the way the Stones delivered the song.   “Satisfaction,” in fact, had enough attitude and swagger to wilt any set of established values its listeners might choose to target.  It became an all-purpose, anti-establishment anthem with broad applicability.  The song was a good fit for its times and audience.


Breakthrough

The Rolling Stones pictured on “Satisfaction” record sleeve, from left: Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts, Keith Richards, Mick Jagger (looking a bit out of it), and Brian Jones, 1965-66.
The Rolling Stones pictured on “Satisfaction” record sleeve, from left: Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts, Keith Richards, Mick Jagger (looking a bit out of it), and Brian Jones, 1965-66.
     For the Rolling Stones, “Satisfaction” proved to be the breakthrough song; the one that set them apart and sent them on their way toward superstardom. The group performed “Satisfaction” on American TV even before the single was released in the States.  On May 20, 1965, they appeared on the ABC show Shindig! from Los Angeles.  “Satisfaction” was released as a U.S. single by London Records on June 6th,1965, with another somewhat obscure song on its B-side, “The Under-Assistant West Coast Promotion Man.”  The Stones were then touring in the U.S., the third time they’d been to the States.  But at the time they were still a new group to many in America.  As part of this tour, for example, on May 4th, 1965, they performed at Georgia Southern University in Statesboro, Georgia.  On June 5, 1965 they played to about 3,000 people at Jack Russell Stadium in Clearwater, Florida.  “Satisfaction,” meanwhile, had entered the Billboard Hot 100 that week and rose to No. 1 by July 10th, displacing The Four Tops’ “I Can’t Help Myself.”  The song was also featured on the Rolling Stones’ third U.K. album, Out of Our Heads, also released in the U.S. in July 1965.

Keith Richards & Brian Jones comparing guitar licks,1960s.
Keith Richards & Brian Jones comparing guitar licks,1960s.
     Glenn Gass, a professor at the School of Music at Indiana University, told ABC News decades later on the 45th anniversary of “Satisfaction,” that although there were many great songs that year from groups such as the Beach Boys, Sonny & Cher, the Byrds, the Four Tops and others, “Satisfaction” nonetheless “claimed that summer.”  The song held the top spot on the record charts for four weeks until August 7, 1965, when another English band, Herman’s Hermits, hit No. 1 with their tune, “I’m Henry the Eighth, I Am.”  Still, “Satisfaction” remained on the Billboard charts for 14 weeks.  The song sold 500,000 copies in its first eight weeks, giving the Stones their first official gold record award by the Recording Industry Association of America.  The song also put the Stones on the path to “Beatles-level” popularity.  “They were already going strong,” said Indiana University’s Gass of the Stones’ growing popularity then, “but that song put them in the Beatles’ stratosphere of rarified air.”“…It was the song that really made the Rolling Stones, changed us from just another band into a huge, monster band…”
                    – Mick Jagger
 Mick Jagger himself would later acknowledge much the same in a 1995 interview with Jann Wenner of Rolling Stone magazine:

“…It was the song that really made the Rolling Stones, changed us from just another band into a huge, monster band.  You always need one song.  We weren’t American, and America was a big thing and we always wanted to make it here.  It was very impressive the way that song and the popularity of the band became a worldwide thing.  It’s a signature tune, really,…a kind of signature that everyone knows.  It has a very catchy title.  It has a very catchy guitar riff.  It has a great guitar sound, which was original at that time.  And it captures a spirit of the times, which is very important in those kinds of songs… Which was alienation.  Or it’s a bit more than that, maybe, but a kind of sexual alienation.  Alienation’s not quite the right word, but it’s one word that would do.”

Mick Jagger and Keith Richards in 1967, two years after “Satisfaction” was released.
Mick Jagger and Keith Richards in 1967, two years after “Satisfaction” was released.
     “Satisfaction” did, however, in the mid-1960s, tread upon sensitive ground with its lyrics suggesting frustrated adolescent sexuality — i.e., not getting any “girl reaction” – interpreted by some listeners and radio programmers as meaning a girl willing to have sex.  In fact, when the Rolling Stones performed the song on the TV show Shindig! in 1965, the line “trying to make some girl” was censored.  And again, when they performed it later on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1966 the same line – “trying to make some girl”– was not used.

     “Satisfaction” also put rock music, and the Rolling Stones, on something of a more raucous, more bawdy, harder-edge path – a distinction some would later draw in comparisons to the Beatles.  The Beatles, of course, had just been through their 1964-1965 “Beatlemania” period with a phenomenal run of pop hits and lots of “yeah, yeah, yeah.”  The Stones, on the other hand, were coming on with a little different sound; providing music that had more of an R&B- and blues-tinge to it.  “Satisfaction” was a “great ‘no’ to the Beatles’ ‘yeah’,” offered Glenn Gass from Indiana University in a 2010 interview with ABC News at the song’s 45th anniversary.  Others, including writer Tom Wolfe, would go farther.  “The Beatles,” he once famously wrote, “just want to hold your hand.  The Rolling Stones want to burn your town down” – an exaggeration, of course, but the message was plain.

Ed Sullivan talking with Mick Jagger; Keith Richards in background, at another, later show rehearsal, January 15, 1967.
Ed Sullivan talking with Mick Jagger; Keith Richards in background, at another, later show rehearsal, January 15, 1967.
     But it wasn’t just the Stones who were supplying that harder edge to rock music.  In 1964 there had also been bluesy songs like the Animals’ “House of the Rising Sun,” and even the Beatles did their raucous cover of “Twist and Shout” that year.  The Stones themselves also had the bluesy 1964 hit, “Time is On My Side,” which rose to No. 6 that November.  Bob Dylan, meanwhile, had “Like A Rolling Stone” in the summer of 1965, a landmark message song.  Still, “Satisfaction” grabbed center-stage attention at the time, appealing to mainstream rock audiences in a new way.  It was a distinctive turn.  After 1965-1966, of course, the music would change again, and the change would escalate, with much more innovation, new sounds, and good music to come – from the Stones, Dylan, the Beatles, and many others.

     The Stones, for their part, would follow “Satisfaction” with a long list of other 1960s’ hits, such as: “Get Off My Cloud” and “As Tears Go By” in 1965; “Paint it Black” and “19th Nervous Breakdown” in 1966; “Let’s Spend the Night Together” and “Ruby Tuesday” in 1967; “Jumpin’ Jack Flash” and “Street Fighting Man” in 1968; “Sympathy for the Devil” and “Honky Tonk Woman” in 1969, and many more.  The Stones, in fact, were just getting started in the 1960s, with about four more decades of music-making and performing ahead of them.  “Satisfaction,” meanwhile, would experience a spike in sales after being heard in movies such as Apocalypse Now in 1979 or Starman of 1994, as well as during and after the Stone’s many concert tours.

In November 2004, Rolling Stone magazine put “Satisfaction” at No. 2 among its ‘500 Greatest’ songs.
In November 2004, Rolling Stone magazine put “Satisfaction” at No. 2 among its ‘500 Greatest’ songs.
     Over the years, “Satisfaction” has been accorded high honors in the pantheon of rock `n roll.  The song has been noted in various “top 100 lists” by Vox, BMI , VH1, MTV, Q magazine and other media and rock music venues.  Newsweek once called the song’s opening guitar riff, “five notes that shook the world.”  In November 2004, Rolling Stone magazine placed the song at No. 2 on its list of the “500 Greatest Songs of All Time”– second only to Bob Dylan’s “Like a Rolling Stone”.  In 2006, “Satisfaction” was added to the Library of Congress National Recording Registry, songs deemed to be among those that are culturally and/or historically significant.

     Other stories at this website on the Rolling Stones, their music, and business history include, for example, “Paint It Black” (song history & subsequent uses); “Stones Gather Dollars” (how the Rolling Stones helped develop a lucrative concert touring model); “Start Me Up” (Bill Gates & Windows 95 theme song), and “Shine A Light, 2008” (Rolling Stones film trailer).  Additional story choices on other topics at this website may be found on the Home Page or in the Archive.  Thanks for visiting — and please consider supporting this website. Thank you. — Jack Doyle


Please Support
this Website

Donate Now

Thank You

____________________________________

Date Posted: 11 July 2011
Last Update: 11 March 2012
Comments to: jdoyle@pophistorydig.com

Article Citation:
Jack Doyle, “…No Satisfaction, 1965-1966,”
PopHistoryDig.com, July 11, 2011.

____________________________________


 


Sources, Links & Additional Information

Young Rolling Stones, London, England,1963: From left: Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Brian Jones (1942 - 1969), Bill Wyman and Charlie Watts.
Young Rolling Stones, London, England,1963: From left: Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Brian Jones (1942 - 1969), Bill Wyman and Charlie Watts.
Decca record label for Rolling Stones’ 1965 song, “Satisfaction,” by Mick Jagger & Keith Richards.
Decca record label for Rolling Stones’ 1965 song, “Satisfaction,” by Mick Jagger & Keith Richards.
Young Rolling Stones, early 1960s, U.K. street scene.
Young Rolling Stones, early 1960s, U.K. street scene.
Screen shot from Rolling Stones' performance in the October 1964 T.A.M.I. Show, filmed in Santa Monica, CA, where they performed “Time in On My Side” and “It’s All Over Now,” among others.
Screen shot from Rolling Stones' performance in the October 1964 T.A.M.I. Show, filmed in Santa Monica, CA, where they performed “Time in On My Side” and “It’s All Over Now,” among others.
Mid-1960s: Rolling Stones shown with wunderkind studio producer, Phil Spector, with sunglasses.
Mid-1960s: Rolling Stones shown with wunderkind studio producer, Phil Spector, with sunglasses.
Mick Jagger on stage, with Keith Richards and Brian Jones behind him, as Stones debut “Jumpin Jack Flash” at a New Musical Express (NME) concert in the U.K., May 1968.
Mick Jagger on stage, with Keith Richards and Brian Jones behind him, as Stones debut “Jumpin Jack Flash” at a New Musical Express (NME) concert in the U.K., May 1968.

“The Rolling Stones,” in Holly George-Warren and Patricia Romanowski (eds), The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll, New York: Rolling Stone Press, 3rd Edition, 2001, pp.831-835.

Jann Wenner, “Jagger Remembers: The Rolling Stone Interview,” Rolling Stone, December 14, 1995.

“No. 2: Satisfaction – Rolling Stones,” Rolling Stone 500 Greatest Songs, December, 9 2004.

Michael Murray, “‘(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction,’ 45 Years Later; In 1965, the Rolling Stones Released the Legendary Rock and Roll Song,” ABC News, May 6, 2010.

“(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction,” Wiki- pedia.org.

Robert Christgau, “The Rolling Stones,” in, Anthony DeCurtis and James Henke (eds), The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock n Roll, New York: Random House, 1992, pp.238-251.

“The Rolling Stones,” Wikipedia.org.

“‘Satisfaction’ Comes to Keith Richards,” This Day in History, May 7, 1965, History.com.

J.P., “The Rolling Stones: Road Worn, Forlorn & Almighty Guitar Porn,” The Selvedge Yard, August 25, 2010 (a Stones photo collection).

Paul Richard, “Rolling Stones Lacking In Beatle-Like Finesse,” Washington Post / Times Herald, November 14, 1965, p. B-3.

“5 Rolling Stones Gather Avid Fans,” New York Times, July 4, 1966.

“Library of Congress Selects Stones Song,” USA Today, March 6,2007.

“(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction,” The Rolling Stones, SongFacts.com.

Joel Whitburn, The Billboard Book of Top 40 Hits, Billboard Books, New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 8th Edition, 2004.

Hank Bordowitz, Turning Points in Rock and Roll, New York: Citadel Press, 2004.

Mick Jagger, Mick Jagger in His Own Words, Putnam Publishing Group, 1982, 127 pp.

Bill Wyman, Stone Alone: The Story Of A Rock ‘n’ Roll Band, Viking Adult, November 1990, 608 pp.

Victor Bockris, Keith Richards: The Biography, Da Capo Press, March 1998, 416 pp.

Laura Jackson, Heart of Stone: The Unauthorized Life of Mick Jagger, Blake Publishers, November 1998, 288 pp.

Stanley Booth, The True Adventures of the Rolling Stones, Chicago Review Press, May 2000, 416 pp.

Bill Wyman, Rolling With The Stones, DK Publishing, 2002. 512 pp.

Robert Greenfield, S.T.P.: A Journey Through America With The Rolling Stones, Da Capo Press September 2002, 352 pp.

Laura Jackson Arise Sir Mick: The True Story of Britain’s Naughtiest Knight, John Blake Publishers, July 2003, 288 pp.

Stephen Davis, Old Gods Almost Dead: The 40-year Odyssey of the Rolling Stones, Aurum Press Ltd., July 2003, 624pp.

Christopher Sandford, Mick Jagger: Rebel Knight, Omnibus Press, October 2003, 386 pp.

Robert Greenfield, Exile on Main Street: A Season in Hell with the Rolling Stones, Da Capo Press, February 2008, 272 pp.

Philip Dodd, According to the Rolling Stones, Chronicle Books, May 2009, 402 pp.

Jim DeRogatis and Greg Kot, The Beatles vs. The Rolling Stones: Sound Opinions on the Great Rock ‘n’ Roll Rivalry, Voyageur Press, October 2010, 192 pp.

Steve Appleford, The Rolling Stones: The Story Behind Their Biggest Songs, Carlton Books, November 2010, 272 pp.

Luke Crampton, Dafydd Rees and Tim Lister, Rock Diary: The Rolling Stones, Original Media, February 2011.

Francois Hebel, Mick Jagger: The Photobook, Contrasto, April 2011, 192 pp.

Keith Richards and James Fox, Life, Little, Brown and Co., May 2011, 576 pp.

Marc Spitz, Jagger: Rebel, Rock Star, Rambler, Rogue, Gotham Press, September 2011, 320 pp.

______________________________




Home | About | Videos | Archive | Custom Research | Donate | Contact
© 2014 The Pop History Dig, LLC design by: Mindstorm Interactive, Inc.