The Pop History Dig

“Big Chill”Promo
1983-1998:Video


 

Note:  This is the film trailer for 1983’s The Big Chill.  It was updated in 1998,
the film’s 15th anniversary year, as part promo for the release of the remas-
tered DVD edition.  The trailer offers a good, quick overview of the story
and its characters, plus a sampling of the excellent 1960s music used throug-
hout the film.

Story:  The Big Chill is a film about eight former 1960s’ college friends who
gather for an unscheduled reunion following a friend’s untimely suicide.  It’s
an introspective film featuring a weekend of soul searching by the group of
former college friends.  The actual and metaphorical “big chill” in the film is
the death of their friend and their own “ten-years-later” reality check on what
each of them have or have not become since their college days.  The cast in-
cludes: Glenn Close, William Hurt, Tom Berenger, Jeff Goldblum, Kevin Kline,
Meg Tilly, Mary Kay Place, and JoBeth Williams.  For many baby boomers
who first saw it in 1983, it was the film’s soundtrack – an evocative collection
of original 1960s rock ‘n roll tunes – that was especially memorable and endur-
ing, becoming a best seller.  And that fact was not lost on Madison Avenue.


“Big Chill Marketing”
See related story at this website on how The Big Chill became something of a
landmark in the history of advertising, especially how the movie’s soundtrack
helped to spur the use of original, pre-existing rock songs in advertising – then
a relatively rare practice.  The story also covers the making of the film, lists
the songs used throughout the film, and explores some of the history of music
use in advertising and marketing – from Coca-Cola’s use of pop music, to music
fans’ dismay over hearing their favorite songs used by product pitchmen.

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Video Source
The source for this video in found at YouTube.


____________________

First Posting:  22 October 2008
Last Update:  7 April 2011
Comments to:  jdoyle@pophistorydig.com

Article Citation:
Jack Doyle, “Big Chill Promo, 1983-1989: Video,”
PopHistoryDig.com, October 22, 2008.

_____________________________







“Start Me Up”
1995

Bill Gates silhouetted against the “start” button during a video portion of the Windows 95 launch at Microsoft  in Redmond, Washington, August 1995. AP photo.
Bill Gates silhouetted against the “start” button during a video portion of the Windows 95 launch at Microsoft in Redmond, Washington, August 1995. AP photo.
     In the annals of advertising history, one of the great coups in the use of rock ‘n roll music to help sell things came in the summer of 1995 when Bill Gates of the Microsoft Corporation used the Rolling Stones’ “Start Me Up” song to help launch his company’s Windows 95 computer software.  As the story goes, it was Gates’ idea to use the song, as the tune dovetailed nicely with the prominent “start button” feature that appeared on the Windows computer screen.  Initially it was rumored that Gates paid something in the neigh- borhood of $10-to-$14 million to the Stones to use their song.  The actual figure may have been lower than that.  But as the story goes, Gates reportedly asked Jagger personally how much it would cost to use the song.   Jagger, being the naughty boy he is, threw out what he thought would be a very high number, something in the millions; a number that would surely dissuade Gates in his quest.  But Jagger’s ploy didn’t phase Gates — at least according to legend.  Whatever amount Jagger had suggested, Gates agreed to it on the spot.  Still, there came some longer negotiations regarding the details on rights and usage.  But the deal did get made.

     Once the song was wedded to the Microsoft campaign and its TV spot, most who heard and/or saw it agreed it was a most effective piece of commercial persua- sion.  “The power-guitar chords are unmistakably familiar, imprinted on us through decades of party time,” wrote Newsweek’s Stephen Levy describing the opening bars of “Start Me Up” in his September 1995 piece on the Windows launch.  He called the tune’s use by Microsoft an attempt to “anthemize” the Windows 95 operating system.  “The purchase of that classic hook,” he wrote, “symbolizes the brilliant way that Microsoft marketing wizards have managed to transmogrify a technological molehill into the Mount McKinley of software…”

     In the TV spot itself, as seen above, a series of quick-cut screen shots are shown with children and adults working with computers in various settings as descriptive word titles for those uses flash across the screen in sync with the Stones’ music and the ad’s “start” theme — Start Exploring, Start Discovering, Start Learning, Start Doing, Start Organizing, Start Connecting, Start Managing, Start Creating, Start Playing, Start Moving, and finally, Start Windows 95.  As the ad closes with the music still playing, the final screen shot has the Microsoft Windows 95 logo and then the last phrase, “Where do you want to go today?”  But the Stones’ music is definitely effective in carrying the message and setting an upbeat tone.


Song History

‘Start Me Up’ began as a reggae tune in earlier years, but was turned into a more hard-driving rock sound for use in this ‘Tatto You’ album by 1981.
‘Start Me Up’ began as a reggae tune in earlier years, but was turned into a more hard-driving rock sound for use in this ‘Tatto You’ album by 1981.
     “Start Me Up” actually began its musical journey with the Stones back in the 1970s.  It was one of the songs used in recording sessions in Munich, Germany during 1975 for the album Black and Blue.  Initially the song was recorded as a reggae-rock track, but after dozens of takes the band stopped recording it, as it reminded them of something on the radio.  The song also cropped up from time to time in other Stones recording sessions in the late 1970s, and at some point it had bee given working titles such as “Never Stop” and “Start It Up.”  But it had never been formally recorded or released.  By 1981, heading out to tour and surveying their old taped archive, a version of the song was found that had more of a rock sound to it they liked and soon began re-working it.  This version, with overdubbing, was tracked in early 1981, mixing in some unique reverb, with final touches added in a New York recording session, including Jagger’s switch in lyrics from “start it up” to “start me up.”  The lyrics in the final version allude partly to motorcycle metaphors and the rider’s love interest, with hidden and not-so-hidden meanings and sexually-loaded double-entendre throughout.  A few of the lines in the final tune are similar to some used by a Keith Richards- favored blues singer named Lucille Bogan.

‘Start Me Up’ cover sleeve for Rolling Stones single released in August 1981.
‘Start Me Up’ cover sleeve for Rolling Stones single released in August 1981.
     One recent reviewer of the song at the James BioMagazine notes that while much of the music world was hurting following the death of John Lennon in 1980, and writing maudlin tributes, the Rolling Stones’ “Start Me Up” came as “a reaffirmation of rock music’s vitality,” showing that the Stones at least “were still keeping the torch alive, as lascivious and as powerful as ever.”  This reviewer also added that much of the music genre the Stones had made their own — from blues to the urban music of the 70’s and 80’s — was built upon sexual longing.  “Maybe that’s why the Stones were better than any other rock band at assimilating those styles;” he wrote, “they understood this reality and, rather than running from it or prettifying it, they reveled in it, pure and unadulterated.  ‘Start Me Up’ is the epitome of that…”

     In any case, “Start Me Up” in 1981 became a Rolling Stones pop hit and also the lead track on their August 1981 album, Tattoo You.  The song was also released as a single.  In the U.K., it peaked at No. 7.  In the U.S., “Start Me Up” spent three weeks during October and November 1981 at No. 2 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, and in Australia, it went to No. 1.  “Start Me Up” thereafter became a popular song for opening the Stones’ live shows, and it has been featured on their live albums as well as most Stones’ compilation albums since its release, and other albums including Rewind (1971-1984), Jump Back, and Forty Licks.


Windows 95

     Nearly 15 year after the song’s initial popularity, Bill Gates hit upon the idea of using “Start Me Up” for the Windows 95 launch.  Gates happened to meet Mick Jagger at some point and asked him how much it would cost to use the song in advertising.  Reportedly, Jagger replied with some amount in the millions  — $10 million by one account  — a sum, in any case, that Jagger thought would be outrageously high.Microsoft’s “Start Me Up” campaign was aimed at key groups of Rolling Stones followers — from baby boomers to twenty- somethings…   But Gates, undeterred, didn’t flinch and agreed to the amount.  Still, there were some months of negotiating between Microsoft and the Stones to nail down the song’s use, including talks with the Stones’ agent and financial advisor, Prince Rupert, as well as some direct talks with the Stones in Amsterdam.  This was the first time that Mick Jagger and Keith Richards, the group’s songwriters, had sold a song’s use for advertising.  Jagger and Richards hold the rights to Rolling Stones’ songs they have written since 1972.  However, some of their earlier songs, which they did not hold the rights to, had been used in previous advertising, including one use of the song “Satisfaction” in a Snickers candy bar ad by Mars, Inc.  Jagger and Richards were not happy about that incident, but those rights were held by a former manager.  Jagger and Richards had generally not been keen on using their material in advertising, but with Gates and Microsoft, they made a deal.

The Microsoft 'Windows 95' logo.
The Microsoft 'Windows 95' logo.
     “Start Me Up” became a key part of the Microsoft product launch, as the consumers the company especially wanted were in that large, tech-savvy and mostly well-off demographic that ranged from baby boomers to twentysomethings  — also a key group of Rolling Stones devotees.  The commercials with the “Start Me Up” music first aired in August 1995 during NBC’s popular Seinfeld TV show, and continued broadcasting thereafter for a time on other shows as well.  The Stones’ music got the attention of Microsoft’s target demographic and beyond, leaving no doubt for some a lasting association between the song and Microsoft’s product.  (In fact, a few critics would later refer pejoratively to one of the song’s lines — not used in the ad, however — “you make a grown man cry,” referring to subsequent Windows 95 problems).  But the Stones’ song, as important as it was in the Windows 95 launch, was still only part of Microsoft’s much larger $300 million advertising and promotion campaign.


Jay Leno, Too

Microsoft’s Bill Gates on stage with Jay Leno at the Windows 95 launch event in Redmond, WA.
Microsoft’s Bill Gates on stage with Jay Leno at the Windows 95 launch event in Redmond, WA.
     In the U.S., the promotional kick-off for Windows 95 was centered in Redmond, Washington and included popular late-night talk show host Jay Leno, who served as a kind of MC for the ceremonies in a big pavilion event and unveiling on the Microsoft campus.  Over 12,500 people were invited to attend the launch, plus live satellite broadcasts were made available in 42 U.S. cities and world capitals.  The Rolling Stones tune accompanied Bill Gates on stage as he booted up the new program at the ceremony.  It was broadcast live via satellite to other launch events and retail outlets nationwide.  Gates’ best line during the show, digging at Jay Leno, was: “Windows 95 is so easy even a talk-show host can figure it out.”  The event in Redmond, however, was no casual affair.  It took more than 20 days and a crew of over 200 to set it up.  It was later described as a cross between a high-tech expo and a carnival, including its own “midway” with various pavilions where attendees could try out the new Windows 95 software and related products.  As for the product itself, there were more than 11 million lines of code involved and some 500 people at Microsoft who worked on it, all introduced en masse at one point during the ceremony.  But the media blitz for Windows 95 went well beyond the Redmond event, and in fact, all around the world.

USA Today ran a front-page story on the big ‘Windows 95' show that Bill Gates put on in Redmond, WA.
USA Today ran a front-page story on the big ‘Windows 95' show that Bill Gates put on in Redmond, WA.
     A 30-minute promotional TV video, or “cyber sitcom” as it was called — featured then-popular Friends sitcom TV stars Jennifer Aniston and Matthew Perry using and highlighting the Windows 95 software.  Another Windows 95 “infomercial” with popular ER TV star, Anthony Edwards, also appeared.  Print ads and in-store events were also part of the campaign.  In London, Microsoft struck a deal with Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation, owner of The Times of London newspaper, printing 1.5 million copies of a special edition and giving them all way — twice the paper’s normal run of 845,000.  Credit for the giveaway was given to Microsoft at the top of the front page in a box that read: “Windows 95 Launch — Today The Times is Free Courtesy of Microsoft.”  Also across the bottom of the front page was another Microsoft pitch for its new software: “Windows 95.  So Good Even The Times Is Complimentary.”  Inside the paper, a Microsoft supplement continued the pitch with articles about the new software, as well as advertising from Microsoft and other computer hardware and software companies and retailers.

     In New York, Microsoft’s logo colors — orange, yellow and green — were used for a special lighting of the Empire State Building.  In Toronto, a 300-foot Windows 95 banner hung from the CN Tower.  New York Times reporter Richard Stevenson wrote that the series of Microsoft promotions were “more reminiscent of the recording industry than the computer business, complete with parties and midnight store openings…”


Return on Investment

     Bill Gates and Microsoft, meanwhile, were pretty confident that their $300 million in hype would pay off and that the company would recoup its marketing and promotional outlays — and then some.Roughly 100 million com- puter users with earlier versions of Windows  would  sooner or later  upgrade to Windows 95. They knew at the time there were roughly 100 million computer users who had earlier versions of Windows who would sooner or later upgrade to Windows 95.  Then there was at least another $250 million of expected sales from add-on software that could be used with Windows 95.  And within days of the launch, millions of copies of Windows 95 were sold; more than 40 million in the first year.  Windows 95, in its day, soon became the most successful operating system ever produced.  And within three years of its introduction — as is the way of the world with computer software  — Windows 95 would be followed by new Microsoft software, Windows 98, and subsequent versions, continuing to present times.

Rolling Stones, circa 2005, from left, Charlie Watts, Keith Richards, Mick Jagger, and Ronnie Wood.
Rolling Stones, circa 2005, from left, Charlie Watts, Keith Richards, Mick Jagger, and Ronnie Wood.
     The Rolling Stones, meanwhile, were quite happy to have been of service for Windows 95, collecting some cool millions for renting out their music, and no doubt, reaping some increased sales of “Start Me Up” and the rest of their music.  Microsoft, of course, became one of the world’s most powerful corporations, and Bill Gates, one of the wealthiest men in the world.

     Other stories at this web site on the Rolling Stones include: “Paint It Black, 1966,” “Stones Gather Dollars, 1989-2008,” and “Shine a Light, 2008.”  Other stories on music and advertising include: “Big Chill Marketing, 1980s & 1990s,” “Nike & The Beatles,1987-1989,” “Madonna’s Pepsi Ad, 1989,” “Selling Janis Joplin, 1995,” “Sting & Jaguar, 1999-2001,” and “G.E.’s Hot Coal Ad, 2005.” Thanks for visiting — and please consider supporting this website. Thank you. – Jack Doyle

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Date Posted:   23 November 2009
Last Update:   13 August 2014
Comments to:   jdoyle@pophistorydig.com

Article Citation:
Jack Doyle, “Start Me Up, 1995,” PopHistoryDig.com
November 23, 2009.

______________________



Sources, Links & Additional Information

Keith Richards & Mick Jagger portrayed on the cover of ‘Rolling Stone’ magazine, 21Aug 1980 with story line: ‘Monuments of Rock. The Rolling Stones: The Band That Refuses to Die.’
Keith Richards & Mick Jagger portrayed on the cover of ‘Rolling Stone’ magazine, 21Aug 1980 with story line: ‘Monuments of Rock. The Rolling Stones: The Band That Refuses to Die.’
Mick Jagger & Keith Richards on the cover of ‘Rolling Stone’ magazine, 7 Sept 1989.
Mick Jagger & Keith Richards on the cover of ‘Rolling Stone’ magazine, 7 Sept 1989.

“The Media Business; Microsoft Throws Stones Into Its Windows 95 Ads,” New York Times, August 18, 1995.

Denise Gellene, “Microsoft Hopes Rolling Out Stones Will Gather Interest; Firm Wants its Windows 95 Campaign to Strike a Chord in Old and Young,”Los Angeles Times, August 19, 1995, p. D-1.

David Segal, “With Windows 95’s Debut, Microsoft Scales Heights of Hype,” Washington Post, Thursday, August 24, 1995, p. A-14.

Richard W. Stevenson, The Media Business: Advertising; Software Makes Strange Bed- fellows in Britain as Microsoft and Murdoch Team to Push Windows 95,” New York Times, Thursday, August 24, 1995, p. D-6.

Peter H. Lewis, “Snubbed at Windows Party? Log On the Internet,” New York Times, Friday, August 25, 1995 p. D-4.

Steven Levy, “Gimme Software,” Newsweek, September 4, 1995,

Mike Littwin (Baltimore Sun), “Even Mick Jagger, Stones Now Work For Bill Gates,”The Register-Guard (Eugene, Oregon), Thursday, September 7, 1995, p. 6-B.

“Start Me Up,” Wikipedia.com, November 12, 2009.

Ken Polsson, “Chronology of Personal Com- puters,”@ IslandNet.com.

“Windows 95,” Business Week ( Int’l edition), Cover Story, July 17, 1995.

Bob Johnson, “The Launch of Windows 95,” Concentric.net.

JBev, “Hang Fire: Ranking the Stones ’80s Output (Songs 5-1),” JamesBioMagazine, September 1st, 2009.

Tony Long, “Aug. 24, 1995: Say Hello to Windows 95,” Wired, August 24, 2007.






“Big Chill Marketing”
1980s-1990s

Poster for the 1983 film, with subhead above that reads: 'The story of eight old friends searching for something they lost, and finding that all they needed was each other.' For many Baby Boomers who saw this film, the soundtrack was especially memorable, a fact not lost on Madison Avenue.
Poster for the 1983 film, with subhead above that reads: 'The story of eight old friends searching for something they lost, and finding that all they needed was each other.' For many Baby Boomers who saw this film, the soundtrack was especially memorable, a fact not lost on Madison Avenue.
     In September 1983, a movie named The Big Chill was released — a story about eight former 1960s’ college friends who gather for an unscheduled reunion after a friend’s untimely suicide.  The Columbia film was nominated for, but did not win, three academy awards, including Best Picture.  The Big Chill did reasonably well at the box office and in its DVD afterlife and still has fans online today.  But for many who first saw it in 1983, it was the film’s soundtrack — an evocative collec- tion of original 1960s rock ‘n roll tunes — that was especially memorable and enduring.  In fact, the movie’s music became something of a key landmark in the history of advertising, as it would help to spur the use of original rock music in a myriad of advertising applications in the years that followed.  Prior to The Big Chill, for the most part, popular rock musicians sang company jingles, or advertisers used copied versions of their songs, performed by imitators and studio groups.  But after The Big Chill, there was a decided turn by Madison Avenue to use original rock ‘n roll songs, or portions of them, in all kinds of advertising.  “…[T]he movie probably gave far too many ad agencies the notion to buy up the rights to 60s’ songs for use in pushing the nostalgia buttons of key-demographic consumers,” later wrote Ken Tucker in The New York Times.  Indeed, by the mid-1980s oldies rock ‘n roll had reached vintage nostalgic value among middling Baby Boomers, who were then arriving by the millions in their full, prime-time spending years.  And while it wasn’t the only factor, The Big Chill certainly helped persuade Madison Avenue to begin using original-track rock ‘n roll more prominently in their advertising.  In fact, a few industry wags would call the practice “Big Chill advertising.” 

Big Chill Music
1983 Soundtrack

 

“I Heard it Through the Grapevine”
Marvin Gaye (1968, #1)
“You Can’t Always Get What You Want”
The Rolling Stones (1973, #42)
“A Whiter Shade of Pale”
Procol Harum (1967, #5)
“Tracks of My Tears”(1965, #16)
Smokey Robinson & The Miracles
“Wouldn’t it Be Nice”(1966, #8)
The Beach Boys
“Tell Him” (1963, #4)
The Exciters
“The Weight”(1968, #63)
The Band
“Good Lovin'”(1966, #1)
The Rascals
“Strangers in the Night”
Instrumental
“Gimme Some Lovin'”(1967, #7)
Spencer Davis Group
“Bad Moon Rising” (1969, #2)
Creedence Clearwater Revival
“Ain’t Too Proud to Beg”(1966, #13)
The Temptations
“When a Man Loves a Woman”(‘66,#1)
Percy Sledge
“A Natural Woman”(1967, #8)
Aretha Franklin
“In the Midnight Hour”
The Rascals
“I Second That Emotion”(1967, #4)
Smokey Robinson & The Miracles
“Joy to the World”(1971, #1)
Three Dog Night
“Quicksilver Girl”(1968)
The Steve Miller Band
“My Girl”(1965, #1)
The Temptations

___________________
Songs listed by approximate appearance in the film. 

     What follows below is some history on Madison Avenue’s use of rock music in advertising; but first, a few words on The Big Chill’s storyline and its musical packaging.

 

The Film

     The Big Chill is an introspective film featuring a weekend of soul searching by the group of college friends who have lost one of their former inner circle to suicide (Kevin Costner played the corpse).  The film’s star-studded cast included Glenn Close, William Hurt, Tom Berenger, and Jeff Goldblum, among others. 

     The story opens at the funeral of their friend, Alex, and his death is the first unpleasant bit of reality to hit the group, soon to become immersed in a “ten-years-later” reality check on what they each have become since their college days.  Among them is a medical doctor, an owner of athletic shoe company, a TV actor, a public-defender-turned-corporate-lawyer, an aimless, somewhat traumatized Vietnam veteran, a bored-to-tears housewife, a People magazine writer, and a pretty, somewhat younger woman who was living with their departed friend at the time of his suicide.  This mix of characters retires from the funeral to the South Carolina home of one of the group, where they each work through their various feelings, concerns and hopes during the weekend.  They eat, drink, cavort, reminisce, dance, smoke dope, and bare their souls.  They fondly recall their college days and their causes, but also confront their disappointments and the waning of their idealism. 

     Though never stated per se, “the big chill” has hit them; the reality that their undergraduate dreams and intentions are not being realized.  Their lives and careers have not turned out exactly as they envisioned them in college.  Turns out, life is more difficult and less inspiring than what they thought it would be.  In the end, some find new direction, some not.  Others pick up where they left off.  The film’s viewers, meanwhile, are fully engaged with the message, and also with the excellent soundtrack, as music becomes a big part of the film’s take-away connection.


The Music 

     The Big Chill soundtrack, in fact, is top shelf; some of the best music of the 1960s, placed nicely in the film’s storyline, hitting its intended viewers in their deepest memory banks and remaining in their heads for days after seeing the film.  During the church scene at the funeral of the departed Alex, for example, one of the group begins to play a few riffs of one of his favorite songs on the church organ — the Rolling Stone’s “You Can’t Always Get What You Want” — as the camera pans the knowing smiles of his friends’ faces.  The organ riff segues into the original tune which plays throughout the funeral scene.

Big Chill Sampler 
“Tell Him” -The Exciters

Audio clip: Adobe Flash Player (version 9 or above) is required to play this audio clip. Download the latest version here. You also need to have JavaScript enabled in your browser.

     In another scene in the kitchen where the group is cleaning up after a pasta and wine fest, The Temptations’ “Ain’t to Proud to Beg” is played, leading to impromptu dancing among friends.  “The scene encapsulates the spirit of the film,” one reviewer would later write, “friendship forged in the footloose optimism of the 60’s; camaraderie instantly regained through the nostalgic power of good pop music.” (see film promo clip).

     Other tunes in the film — such as “A Natural Woman” by Aretha Franklin; “Wouldn’t it Be Nice” by the Beach Boys; “The Weight” by The Band; “Bad Moon Rising” by Creedence Clearwater Revival; “Tracks of My Tears” by Smokey Robinson; “I Heard it Through the Grapevine” by Marvin Gaye; and “A Whiter Shade of Pale” by Procol Harum — all fit nicely into their scenes, serving as a kind of “comfort food” for Boomers.  The Big Chill soundtrack, in fact, quickly became a popular best-seller for Motown, climbing to #17 on the Billboard albums chart in 1983, selling 1 million copies by late March 1984.  All of this, of course, was not lost on Madison Avenue.

     The Big Chill wasn’t the first movie to use original rock ‘n roll music in a soundtrack.  Other films dating to the 1950s had already done so — such as 1955’s Blackboard Jungle, which used Bill Haley’s “Rock Around The Clock” over the opening and closing credits.  The Beatles were among the first to integrate film and original rock music in their mid-1964 A Hard Day’s Night, which used about a dozen of their songs.  Easy Rider of 1969 used rock music effectively in its score, and so did American Graffiti in 1973, the latter in a purposeful nostalgic vein.  Madison Avenue, meanwhile, had a long history of using all kinds of music in advertising.  However, rock ‘n roll music in advertising — especially original-version rock ‘n roll — was still new territory for advertisers in the early 1980s.

 

Pre Big Chill: 1960s-1985

     In fact, prior to the mid-1980s, original rock ‘n roll music had pretty limited and spotty use in advertising.  Rock and popular recording artists were commissioned to sing company jingles or musical spots for various products using company-provided lyrics or compositions.  In 1963,  the folk music group The Limeliters helped inaugurate a series of radio ads for the Coca-Cola company.  They also did a few early TV ads.  The Shirelles, one of the popular “girl groups” of the early 1960s, were among the first pop acts chosen by Coke to record radio commercials, doing a series of those ads for the company over several years.  Among others who did Coke ads in 1965, and whose names appeared on vinyl promo recordings produced by Coke’s ad agency McCann-Erickson, were: the Four Seasons, Roy Orbison, Jay & the Americans, Jan & Dean, and others. In the 1965-69 period, for example, one Coca-Cola historian found 63 Coke radio spots by popular artists, including one by Freddie and the Dreamers singing one Coke lyric to their tune “I’m Telling You Now.”

Sample label from 1965 advertising recording of Coca-Cola jingles produced by ad agency McCann-Erickson featuring artists Roy Orbison and Jan & Dean
Sample label from 1965 advertising recording of Coca-Cola jingles produced by ad agency McCann-Erickson featuring artists Roy Orbison and Jan & Dean
     Among other Coke artists doing radio and/or TV spots during this era and later years were: the Bee Gees, Neil Diamond, the Moody Blues, the Tremeloes, the Troggs, Los Bravos, the Everly Brothers, Otis Redding, the Box Tops, Leslie Gore, Marvin Gaye, the Supremes, and Ray Charles.  Pepsi, 7-Up, and a number of other companies were then recording jingles with pop groups as well.  In the U.K., the young Rolling Stones recorded a rock jingle in the 1960s for Rice Krispies cereal that appeared on a European TV spot.  Still, most of this music was commissioned specifically for the product, and did not use original, pre-existing rock songs.  The nostalgic and “associative” value of these original rock songs, aimed at specific target groups, had yet to be linked to advertising pitches.

     By the late 1970s, rock music was surfacing in a few other TV formats, as the 1976 Orleans hit, “Still the One” started to be used as the ABC-TV network theme song and also by the Nine Network in Australia for the same purpose.  In 1981, there were musicians hooking up with beer and liquor companies in a variety of relationships, some of which involved TV and radio spots, doing company jingles, appearing in print ads, or becoming involved in sponsorship arrangements.  These included Dave Mason of Traffic and later Fleetwood Mac, and Charlie Daniels of the Charlie Daniels Band doing beer commercials — Mason for Miller and Daniels for Busch.  The Commodores became involved with Schlitz beer; Kool & The Gang with Schlitz Malt Liquor, Journey joined Budweiser, and The Marshall Tucker Band with Ronrico Rum. In the 1960s and 1970s, the nostalgic and “associa- tive” value of original rock  `n roll music had yet to be linked to specific advertis- ing pitches. Ad agencies in the early and mid-1980s were also using some popular song melodies, but inserted their own product-specific lyrics usually performed by cover groups.  As writer Carrie McLaren noted in research she’d done on this history: the Platters’ “Only You” became “Only Wendy’s”; the Diamonds’ “Little Darlin'” became KFC’s “Chicken Little”; Buddy Holly’s “Oh Boy” became “Oh Buick!”; Jerry Lee Lewis’ “Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On” became Burger King’s “Whole Lotta Breakfast Goin’ On”; Danny and the Juniors’ “At the Hop” becomes “Let’s Go Take a [Granola] Dip”; and Bobby Darin’s “Mack the Knife” became “It’s Mac Tonight.”  In mid-1982, a version of the Beach Boys’ ”Good Vibrations” was being used in a Sunkist ad.  By this time too, MTV, “music television,” was becoming a force.  Launched in August 1981, the whole point of MTV was to use music videos to sell music.  But it also had a major impact on advertising.  By early 1984, for example, super pop sensation and MTV star Michael Jackson, then of “Thriller” and “moon walk” fame, had made two TV spots for Pepsi — ads that used Pepsi lyrics to the beat and sound of Jackson’s popular “Billie Jean” song in Pepsi’s “new generation” campaign.

 

Boomer Connection

     Meanwhile, on another level, The Big Chill of 1983-84 helped show advertisers the way to a new kind of advertising to Baby Boomers through the rich connection to original rock songs.  “It became prevalent in the mid-’80s after The Big Chill came out,” according to Ray Serafin, an automotive writer for Advertising Age.  Many of the spots that followed The Big Chill, he explained, were trying “to evoke an emotional connection.” By the time of The Big Chill , the evocative con- nection between the ’60s music and its Boomer audience had become especially ripe. By the time of The Big Chill in 1983-84, the evocative connection between the music and its Boomer audience had become especially ripe.  More years had elapsed between the music’s initial popularity and Boomers’ middling years.  The music had, for this group, reached its “prime-time nostalgic vintage,” and so, had a more powerful appeal and connection.

     In both film and advertising psychology, the music-emotion tie is a well-studied phenomenon, and has become a valued strategy.  Movie producers know that the right music in a movie scene can make the scene more powerful, more memorable.  Hollywood producers would pay hundreds of thousands of dollars to get the legal rights to use the right song in the right spot.  Advertisers by the mid-1980s were willing to do the same.

 

Ford’s Yuppie Ads

     In 1985, Ford Motor Company’s advertising agency, Young & Rubicam (Y&R), became an early developer of this approach, producing a series of 19 television commercials using 1960s and 1970s music.  These ads were used to pitch Ford’s Lincoln-Mercury cars.  Ford and Y&R called their advertising “The Yuppie Campaign” — meaning “Young Urban Professional” or “Young Upwardly Mobile Professionals,” describing a desirable Boomer market segment.  The aim of the Ford/Y&R campaign was to make an emotional connection with Yuppies, bringing back memories of when they were in college. Different popular songs were used on each commercial, some in the original, some by imitators.

Bette Midler Case
1986-1988

Spy Game full

     Back in 1985, when the Ford Motor and its ad agency, Young & Rubicam, Inc., launched their 19 television ads with rock ‘n roll music in their “The Yuppie Campaign,” one of the songs they used was a 1973 Bette Midler tune, “Do You Want to Dance.”  In some of the songs that Young & Rubicam used in that campaign, they tried to obtain the original song versions for their ads.  However, in ten cases the agency employed “sound-alikes” and not the original artists or original versions.  One of the “sound-alikes” imitated Bette Midler in her song “Do You Want to Dance.”  Midler by then was a nationally known actress and singer who had won a 1973 Grammy as Best New Artist, and also had recordings that had gone Gold and Platinum.  She was also nominated in 1979 for an Academy award for Best Female Actress in The Rose, in which she portrayed a pop singer Janis Joplin.  Midler had a long history of avoiding commercial endorsements, and in fact had refused Ford’s offer to do the ad herself.  When the backup singer produced a very Midler-like version of the song for Ford — a version that even fooled Midler’s friends — Midler took legal action.

     In 1986-87, Midler sued Lincoln-Mercury and Young & Rubicam, alleging that the use of a sound-alike in their ad constituted “an unlawful misappropriation of her persona.”  She lost her first attempt at the trial court level when her case was dismissed. But the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeal came to her aide in a 1988 decision, noting that, “… when a distinctive voice of a professional singer is widely known and is deliberately imitated in order to sell a product, the sellers have appropriated what is not theirs and have committed a tort in California.”  She was also awarded $400,000 by the jury.  Midler’s success — which came to be known as the “Midler tort” in California — put a damper on the use of sound-alikes.  But soon, outright licensing of original songs became the preferred way to go for commercial interests, although many artists would not go down that path.

     In early March 1985, for example, Lincoln-Mercury used the music from the Beatles song “Help”in one of their ads — though the tune in this case was sung by other artists, not the Beatles.  Still, it was the first time that a Beatles song was used in an American TV spot, and Lincoln-Mercury paid $100,000 at the time to use it.  After that, The Beatles refused to allow their music to be used in commercials, though that would change after a later battle with Nike.  Other artists whose music was used in the Lincoln-Mercury ads — either in the original or by imitators — included Bette Midler, the Coasters, the Four Tops, the Temptations, Tina Turner, and Martha & the Vandellas.

     Among artists and fans, meanwhile, there was resistance to using rock ‘n roll songs in advertising and other commercial applications.  Some artists refused to allow their songs to be used for advertising. Among artists in the mid-1980s then resisting the practice were, for example, Bruce Springsteen, Neil Young, Joan Jett, Chrissie Hynde, Billy Idol, and John Mellencamp.  Some music fans would object to the practice in more fundamental way. 

     Carrie McLaren, writing some years later about music and advertising, described how she associated a car commercial with the song “Everyday People” by Sly and Family Stone after casually hearing the song on a radio at a bagel shop.  She caught herself in the thought, angered by the car-ad association, rather than remembering the artist per se, “the everybody-can-get-along” message of the song, or her college days when she first heard the music.  “When I reacted to “Everyday People,'” she explained, ” it wasn’t about [the artist] selling out or some ’60s multicultural love-in; it was as if the song in my head had been swiped.” And that for many fans — the appropriation and/or distortion of musical memory — would continue to be an issue as more and more original music was used in advertising.  Still, the genie was out of the bottle by this time.  Advertisers had discovered the power in original rock music and there would be little turning back.  By 1986 Rolling Stone magazine had launched a separate newsletter, Marketing Through Music,  aimed at promoting the use of rock music to sell consumer goods, especially to the young adult audience.

     The “Big Chill advertising” that began in the mid- and late-1980s was just the beginning.  Some important legal fights were yet to come, including the Beatles’ fight with Nike in the late 1980s over the use of one of their songs.  But increasingly, through the 1990s (see “Selling Janis Joplin”, for example ), the use of original rock music in advertising would escalate and become more common.

15th anniversary DVD edition, 1998.
15th anniversary DVD edition, 1998.
     As for The Big Chill, the movie and music continued to have a good run for years after its initial opening.  In the year after the movie’s opening, a second album of music was released: The Big Chill: More Songs from the Original Soundtrack.  The original soundtrack meanwhile sold 2 million copies by late September 1985.  It would eventually sell more than six million copies, becoming one of Motown’s best-selling albums.  In 1998, the film’s 15 anniversary year, there was a theatrical reissue of the film in November, and a DVD version by Sony the following January.  The DVD includes a retrospective documentary, deleted scenes, the movie’s trailer, and a six-page insert.  “The Big Chill reasserts itself effortlessly… as an irresistibly satisfying cultural artifact,” wrote Entertainment Weekly’s Lisa Schwarzbaum at the film’s 1998 reissue.  In 1998 as well, both the original and supplemental Big Chill music albums were remastered and released anew.  In 2004, a deluxe edition of the soundtrack was released containing all but two of the eighteen songs from the film, plus three additional instrumentals from the film.  A second “music-of-a-generation” disc of nineteen additional tracks was also included in the deluxe edition, some of which had appeared on the original albums.  In 2008, some twenty-five years after its release, The Big Chill still had an online following.

     Stay tuned to this website for other stories on the history and use of music in advertising and related issues.

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Date Posted:  22 October 2008
Last Update:  25 July 2011
Comments to:  jdoyle@pophistorydig.com

Article Citation:
Jack Doyle, “Big Chill Marketing, 1980s & 1990s,”
PopHistoryDig.com, October 22, 2008.

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Sources, Links & Additional Information

'Big Chill' music, deluxe CD, 2004.
'Big Chill' music, deluxe CD, 2004.
Michiko Kakutani, “A Film Festival With an American Accent,” New York Times, September 18, 1983.

Vincent Canby, Screen: “‘The Big Chill’, Reunion of 60’s Activists,” New York Times, Friday, September 23, 1983.

For The Big Chill song list in sequence by days of the film’s plot and specific movie moments, see website, Musica & Memoria (“music & memories”)

Bill Sizemore, “Advertisers Put ‘Big Chill’ on Boomers,” The Virginian-Pilot, Business section, Friday, February 24, 1995, p. D-1.

Carrie McLaren and Rick Prelinger, “Salesnoise: The Convergence of Music and Advertising,” and “Timeline of Music and Advertising,” both from Stay Free! #15, Fall 1998.

'Big Chill' soundtrack, 1998 edition.
'Big Chill' soundtrack, 1998 edition.
Carrie McLaren, “Licensed to Sell: Why the Jingle is Dead and Commercial Pop Rules,”Stay Free!, 1998.

“The Big Chill,” Wikipedia.org.

Lenn Millbower, “Talkin’ ‘Bout Pop Music,” Heroiclist.com.

Steve Chapple and Reebee Garofolo, Rock ‘n’ Roll is Here to Pay, Nelson-Hall, 1977.

Marc Eliot, Rockonomics: The Money Behind the Music. Franklin Watts, 1989.

Russell A. Stamets, “Ain’t Nothin’ Like the Real Thing, Baby: The Right of Publicity and the Singing Voice,” FCLJ, No. 46, Volume 2, Indiana Law School (re: Bette Midler case).

Stephen Holden, “The Pop Life,” New York Times, November 30, 1988.

More 'Big Chill' music, 1998 edition.
More 'Big Chill' music, 1998 edition.

Ken Tucker, The New Season/Film; “Ain’t Too Proud to Obsess, All Over Again,” New York Times, September 13, 1998 [Ken Tucker is the critic-at-large for Entertainment Weekly.].

Don Aucoin, “Fifteen Years Later, `Big Chill’ Is Cooler than Ever,” Boston Globe, November 6, 1998.

Alex funeral scene from The Big Chill on You Tube (6:37 min).

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The Big Chill cast in front of the home in South Carolina where the film was shot, from left: Glenn Close, Kevin Kline, Meg Tilly, William Hurt, Tom Berenger, Mary Kay Place, Jeff Goldblum, and JoBeth Williams.
The Big Chill cast in front of the home in South Carolina where the film was shot, from left: Glenn Close, Kevin Kline, Meg Tilly, William Hurt, Tom Berenger, Mary Kay Place, Jeff Goldblum, and JoBeth Williams.











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