The Pop History Dig

“21 of 23 Giants”
…Smoke Camels

This full-page newspaper ad – with the New York Giants endorsing  R.J. Reynolds’ Camel cigarette brand – appeared in the New York Times and other papers in early October 1933.
This full-page newspaper ad – with the New York Giants endorsing R.J. Reynolds’ Camel cigarette brand – appeared in the New York Times and other papers in early October 1933.
     In the annals of  audacious tobacco advertising, the 1933 newspaper ad at right for Camel cigarettes ranks pretty close to the top.  Indeed, the claims and endorsements made in this ad seem pretty outrageous by today’s standards — also stating that “21 of 23 Giants …smoke Camels.”  In other words, an entire sports team – or very nearly that – was used in this ad to endorse the Camel cigarette brand.  And this was no ordinary team, but rather, professional baseball’s Word Series champions that year, the victorious New York Giants.

     Tobacco advertising in the 1930s was in its heyday – and from the 1920s through the 1950s there was little restriction on the over-the-top claims being made about tobacco’s safety or its human health effects.  This ad, in fact, suggested health benefits – i.e., “healthy nerves,” with several endorsing stars making similar statements.

     Baseball players and other sports figures had appeared in tobacco ads before, but in the 1930s their appearance in such ads became more common.  It was also in the 1930s that tobacco companies began depicting medical doctors in ads, touting the safety of cigarettes.  Still, to see an ad like the one shown here, invoking nearly an entire sports team to promote cigarette sales, and making health claims to boot, is pretty striking.  Yet this was a much different era, and health-effects knowledge was not what it is today.

Enlarged section from above ad showing pack of Camel cigarettes.
Enlarged section from above ad showing pack of Camel cigarettes.
     A few years piror to this ad, R. J. Reynolds, the producer of Camels, had fallen to No. 2 among  cigarette brands.  Lucky Strike,  a cigarette brand produced by the American Tobacco Co., was the No. 1. brand.  The competition for cigarette sales and market share had become keen.  It was in 1933 that R. J. Reynolds began using sports stars in its advertising.  Baseball was then the nation’s most popular professional sport, with more than 10 million people attending games annually.  Enlisting the World Series champs to your brand would indeed provide a helpful boost.  In 1933, however,  the Great Depression was ravaging the nation.

     Franklin D. Roosevelt had been elected president in the November 1932 elections, but was not sworn in until March of 1933, then the inaugural custom.  Roosevelt faced an unemployment rate of more than 23 percent, thousands of bank failures, and a GNP that had fallen by more than 30 percent.  FDR would launch his New Deal in the years that followed, with a flurry of actions and new agencies coming in 1933.

The official program for the 1933 World Series, depicting managers Joe Cronin of Washington, left, and Bill Terry of New York, right.
The official program for the 1933 World Series, depicting managers Joe Cronin of Washington, left, and Bill Terry of New York, right.
     Despite the hard times, there was optimism that a “Roosevelt recovery” was on the way.  Congress had also introduced a bill to repeal prohibition, meaning alcohol would flow again, as it did legally by year’s end.  Baseball, meanwhile, continued pretty much as it always had, though adding for the first time that July, an All Star game with the best players from National and American league teams in an annual game against one another.  Then that fall came the 1933 World Series.


1933 World Series

     The 1933 World Series pitted the National League’s Giants against the American League’s Washington Senators, also known as the Washington Nationals.  The Giants had 91 wins and 61 losses in the regular season that year, while the Senators had compiled a 99 - 53 record.  The Senators were the surprise victors of the American League that year, breaking a seven-year hold on winning the pennant by either the New York Yankees or the Philadelphia Athletics.

     The New York Giants’ venerable and long-standing manager, John McGraw, had retired the previous year, with the Giants’ regular first baseman, Bill Terry, taking on the manager’s job.  For the Senators, the equally venerable Walter Johnson, the famous pitcher, had also retired from managing in 1932, as the Senators’ regular shortstop, Joe Cronin, became their manager.  Both Cronin and Terry are shown at right on a game program from the 1933 World Series.  The World Series games that year were carried on NBC and CBS radio.

Oct 5 1933:  Franklin D. Roosevelt prepares to throw ceremonial baseball at Griffith Stadium in Washington, D.C. at Game 3 of the 1933 World Series. Directly right of FDR is Washington manager Joe Cronin and New York manager Bill Terry.  AP photo.
Oct 5 1933: Franklin D. Roosevelt prepares to throw ceremonial baseball at Griffith Stadium in Washington, D.C. at Game 3 of the 1933 World Series. Directly right of FDR is Washington manager Joe Cronin and New York manager Bill Terry. AP photo.
     When the Series moved to Washington, D.C. for Game 3 after the first two games had been played at New York’s Polo Grounds, President Roosevelt threw out the ceremonial first pitch at Griffith Stadium.  Throughout the Series, the Giants’ pitching proved the difference, with Carl Hubbell and Hal Schumacher turning in stellar performances.  The Giants took the best–of-seven Series in five games, winning their first championship since 1922.  The final game of the 1933 World Series was played on Saturday, October 7th at Griffith Stadium, with the Giants winning 4-3.  Mel Ott hit two home runs that game, the final one coming in the top of the tenth inning, providing the margin for victory.  Two days later, the Camel cigarette ad shown above began appearing in newspapers around the country.


The Camel Ad

Enlarged baseball with Camels endorsement from ad above.
Enlarged baseball with Camels endorsement from ad above.
     The main headline in the Camel ad proclaims, “It Takes Healthy Nerves To Win The World Series,” with copy to follow that suggests cigarette smoking provided a beneficial help to the World Series victors.   An enlarged baseball directly diretly left of the headline states, “21 out of 23 Giants – World Champions – Smoke Camels,” suggesting there must be some connection and/or advantage to smoking Camels and winning championship games, especially since nearly the whole team is involved.  A Giants team photo also appears at the top of the ad, followed below by a series of photos of individual Giants’ stars making Camel testimonials.  More on those in a moment.  At the bottom of the ad, is the company’s narrative message, which runs as follows:

Well, the returns are in.  Congratulations to the new World Champions—the Giants!  Rated by the experts as a hopeless contender, this amazing team, playing under inspired leadership, fought successfully through one of the hardest National League races in years. . .and again the under dog, went on to win the World Series.  It takes healthy nerves to play “better baseball than you know how.”  It takes healthy nerves to go on winning day after day through crucial series after series. . .delivering time after time in the pinches.  It means something when you discover that 21 out of 23 Giants smoke Camel cigarettes.  These men, to whom healthy nerves are all-important, have found that Camel’s costlier tobaccos not only taste better, but also they never interfere with training. . .never jangle the nerves.

New York Giants’ players featured in the Oct 1933 Camel ad: Bill Terry top, and from left, ‘Blondy’ Ryan, Hal Schumacher, Carl Hubbell & Mel Ott.
New York Giants’ players featured in the Oct 1933 Camel ad: Bill Terry top, and from left, ‘Blondy’ Ryan, Hal Schumacher, Carl Hubbell & Mel Ott.
     At the center of this ad, below the team photo and the enlarged baseball, photographs of five of the Giants’ players appear, each offering a sentence or two endorsing the Camel brand, beginning with Giants’ player/ manager Bill Terry, shown in the circular photo.  Considered one of the game’s greatest players, Bill Terry (1898-1989), was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 1954. 

     Terry is most remembered for being the last National League player to hit .400, a feat he accomplished in 1930, hitting .401.  The Giants would retire Terry’s uniform No. 3 in 1984, and it is posted today at AT&T Park in San Francisco.  In the Camel ad, Terry, then team manager, is quoted as saying: “Great Team Work and healthy nerves carried us to the top.  A check-up of the team shows that 21 out of 23 of the World Champion Giants smoke Camels.”

Carl Hubbell would become one of the game’s great pitchers.
Carl Hubbell would become one of the game’s great pitchers.
     Next in the sequence of Camel endorsers, comes “Blondy” Ryan.  John Collins Ryan (1906-1959) played shortstop in the major leagues from 1930to 1938, and is remembered primarily for his fielding and excellent play in the 1933 World Series.  Ryan was also ninth in MVP voting for the 1933 regular season.  In the Camel ad, he is the first player shown on the left offering his testimonial.  “I long ago learned that Camels are the cigarette for me,” says Ryan in the ad.  “I like Camels better, and they don’t get on my nerves.”  Harold “Hal” Schumacher (1910-1993), one of the key Giants’ pitchers through the 1933 season and the World Series, comes next in the Camel ad: “I prefer Camels,” he says.  “I am a steady smoker of Camels and they never give me jumpy nerves or a ‘cigarettey’ aftertaste.”  Schumacher played with the Giants from 1931 to 1946, compiling a 158-121 win–loss record.  He was also a two-time All Star selection.

     Carl Hubbell (1903-1988), shown in the photo above, was a valuable left-handed pitcher for the Giants and a key player in their 1933 World Series championship.  Hubbell comes next in the Camel ad.  “I can’t risk getting ruffled nerves so I smoke Camels,” he is quoted as saying.  “I like their mildness and I know they won’t interfere with healthy nerves.”  Hubbell played with the Giants from 1928 to 1943, and remained with the team in various capacities for the rest of his life, even after the Giants moved to San Francisco.  Hubbell, a nine-time All Star, was twice voted the National League’s Most Valuable Player.  He was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 1947.  Hubbell is also remembered for his appearance in the 1934 All-Star Game, when he struck out five of the game’s great hitters in succession – Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Jimmie Foxx, Al Simmons and Joe Cronin – setting a longstanding All-Star Game record for consecutive strikeouts.  Hubbell was the first NL player to have his number retired, which is also displayed at AT&T Park.

The New York Giants’ Mel Ott, one of baseball’s greatest hitters.
The New York Giants’ Mel Ott, one of baseball’s greatest hitters.
     Next in the line of five Giants’ players endorsing Camel cigarettes is Mel Ott (1909-1958), the hitting star of the 1933 World Series.  In game 1 of that Series, he had four hits, including a two-run home run.  In game 5, he drove in the Series-winning run with two outs in the top of the 10th inning, driving a pitch into the center-field bleachers for a home run.  “Jumpy nerves and home runs don’t go together,” Ott is credited with saying in the 1933 Camels ad.  “So I stick to my Camels when I get a minute to enjoy a smoke.”  Ott played his entire career (1926-1947) with the New York Giants as an outfielder.  At 5′ 9″and 170 lbs, he was a surprisingly powerful hitter.  He was the first National League player to surpass 500 home runs.  In his 22-year career, Ott compiled a .304 batting average with 2,876 hits, 511 home runs, 1,860 runs batted in (RBIs), a .414 on base percentage, and a .533 slugging average.

     Top Celebrities.  Baseball stars such as Mel Ott and Carl Hubbell – and other famous athletes of that era – were among the most publicly-visible and sought-after celebrities of their day.  Broadway and Hollywood also had their share of stars, and these celebrities were also sought for product endorsements, including tobacco, and some of those are covered elsewhere at this website.  Still, the “celebrity factor” in the 1930s wasn’t quite as intense or ubiquitous as it is today, as there was no television, no internet, no “Dancing With Stars” or “American Idol”– and no 24-7 media machine.  In that era, in fact, World Series baseball stars were regarded as top-of-the-line celebrities, considered among the biggest “gets” of their day, prized by marketers.

Following the 1934 World Series, with the St. Louis Cardinals as champions, a similar Camel advertising pitch was used.
Following the 1934 World Series, with the St. Louis Cardinals as champions, a similar Camel advertising pitch was used.
     In fact, in the following year, 1934, the same “World Series baseball team” pitch for Camels was used again by R.J. Reynolds, this time featuring the 1934 St. Louis Cardinals, who won the Series that year.  As in the Giant’s ad, the “21-of-23-players-smoke-Camels” phrase was used, and five St. Louis players made endorsements, including” the famous pitching brothers, “Dizzy” Dean and Paul Dean; Joe “Ducky” Medwick, power hitter; and “Pepper” Martin and “Rip” Collins.  Player Manager Frank Frisch provided the set-up in this ad, also given a by-line as if reporting:  “They sure made it hot for us this year, but the Cardinals came through in great style clear to the end when we needed every ounce of energy to win. We needed it—and we had it.  There’s the story in a nutshell.  It seems as though the team line up just as well on their smoking habits as they do on the ball field.  Here’s our line-up on smoking: 21 out of 23 of the Cardinals prefer Camels.”  Pepper Martin added: “I like Camels because when I light one I can actually feel all tiredness slip away.”  And Rip Collins claimed:  “A Camel has a way of ‘turning on’ my energy.  And when I’m tired I notice they help me to snap back quickly.”  Dizzy Dean added:  “A Camel sure brings back your energy after a hard game or when you’re tired, and Camels never frazzle the nerves.”

     R.J. Reynolds, for its part, was then engaged in a fierce advertising battle with American Tobacco for the top spot of the cigarette market, and its move in the 1930s to use baseball players and other athletes endorsing the Camel cigarette brand, helped the company regain its top-of-the-market position.

     For other stories at this website on athletes and advertising see, for example: “Vines for Camels, 1934-1935″ (Ellsworth Vines, tennis star); “Babe Ruth & Tobacco, 1920s-1940s” (Ruth in tobacco ads); “Gifford For Luckies, 1961-1962″ (Frank Gifford, football star, in cigarette ad); “Wheaties & Sport, 1930s” (cereal advertising with mostly baseball stars); “Vuitton’s Soccer Stars, June 2010″ (celebrity advertising with soccer stars); and, “…Keeps on Ticking, 1950s-1990s” (Timex watch advertising with sports stars).  Thanks for visiting — and please consider supporting this website. Thank you. - Jack Doyle.


Please Support
this Website

Donate Now

Thank You

____________________________________

Date Posted: 27 October 2012
Last Update: 1 June 2013
Comments to: jdoyle@pophistorydig.com

Article Citation:
Jack Doyle, “21 of 23 Giants…Smoke Camels”
PopHistoryDig.com, October 27, 2012.

____________________________________


 


Sources, Links & Additional Information

Tennis star, Ellsworth Vines, in 1934 Camel cigarette ad. Click for story.
Tennis star, Ellsworth Vines, in 1934 Camel cigarette ad. Click for story.
Football star, Frank Gifford, in early 1960s Lucky Strike cigarette ad. Click for story.
Football star, Frank Gifford, in early 1960s Lucky Strike cigarette ad. Click for story.

“It Takes Healthy Nerves to Win the World Series,” October 1933 New York Times advertisement, Stanford.edu, Page visited, October 2012.

“It Takes Healthy Nerves to Win the World Series,” TobaccoDocuments.org, Page visited, October 2012.

Gene Borio, “Tobacco Timeline: The Twentieth Century 1900-1949–The Rise of the Cigarette,” Tobacco.org.

Leah Lawrence, “Cigarettes Were Once ‘Physician’ Tested, Approved; from the 1930s to the 1950s, ‘Doctors’ Once Lit up the Pages of Cigarette Advertisements,” HemOncToday, March 10, 2009.

Tracie White, “Tobacco-Movie Industry Financial Ties Traced to Hollywood’s Early Years in Stanford/UCSF Study,” Stanford.edu, September 24, 2008.

“Not a Cough in a Carload,” Extensive On-Line Exhibit of Tobacco Ads, Lane Medical Library & Knowledge Management Center, Stanford.edu.

Advertisement, “It Takes Healthy Nerves to Win the World Series,” NewspaperArchive.com, Chester Times (Pennsylvania), October 9, 1933, p. 7.

Advertisement, “It Takes Healthy Nerves to Win the World Series,” Plattsburgh Daily Press (New York), October 9, 1933, p. 8.

“Bill Terry,” Wikipedia.org.

“Hal Schumacher,” Wikipedia.org.

“Carl Hubbell,” Wikipedia.org.

“Mel Ott,” Wikipedia.org.

Advertisement, “21 Out Of 23 St. Louis Cardinals Smoke Camels,” San Jose News, October 11, 1934, p. 3.

Advertisement, “21 Out Of 23 St. Louis Cardinals Smoke Camels, by Frank Fritch,” The Miami Daily News, October 11, 1934, p. 10.

Scott Olstad, “A Brief History Of Cigarette Advertising,” Time, Monday, June 15, 2009.

Fred Stein, Mel Ott: The Little Giant of Baseball, McFarland & Co. Inc., 1999, 240 pp.

Fritz A. Buckallew, A Pitcher’s Moment: Carl Hubbell and the Quest for Baseball Immortality, Forty-Sixth Star Press, 2010, 204 pp.

______________________________________




“Gifford For Luckies”
1961-1962

Frank Gifford, football star for the New York Giants, appeared in Lucky Strike cigarette ads in the early 1960s, including this one, which appeared on the back cover of ‘The Saturday Evening Post’ magazine, November 10, 1962.
Frank Gifford, football star for the New York Giants, appeared in Lucky Strike cigarette ads in the early 1960s, including this one, which appeared on the back cover of ‘The Saturday Evening Post’ magazine, November 10, 1962.
     Frank Gifford first rose to fame in the 1950s and 1960s as a professional football player with the New York Giants.  Later, in a second career, he became famous again as a sports broadcaster.  He is shown at right in a 1962 magazine advertisement for Lucky Strike cigarettes.

     Born in Santa Monica, California in 1930, Gifford graduated from Bakersfield High School, became a Junior College All- American football player at Bakersfield College, then proceeded to the University of Southern California where he also became an All-American.  He entered the profes- sional ranks in 1952, joining the New York Giants, where he played his entire career.

     Gifford began his career with the Giants playing both offense and defense, a rarity at a time when platoon football had begun following World War II.  He made eight Pro Bowl appearances and had five trips to the NFL Championship Game.  Gifford’s biggest season may have been 1956, when he won the Most Valuable Player award of the NFL, and led the Giants to the NFL title over the Chicago Bears.  Gifford also played in the famous December 1958 championship game between the New York Giants and the Baltimore Colts, a game that many believe ushered in the modern era of big time, television-hyped, pro football.   Gifford, in fact, has co-written a recent book on that game, titled The Glory Game.

     In the early 1960s, however, Frank Gifford was a hot commodity, and his endorsement was sought for an array of products, cigarettes among them.  In the magazine ad above, Gifford is shown in a photo from his playing days and another at leisure off the field, lending his endorsement to American Tobacco Company’s Lucky Strike brand.  The caption beneath the football photograph of Gifford reads: “Frank Gifford in action in 1957.  The young New York Giants halfback was already a top star  — and a Lucky Strike smoker.”  The other photograph, with Gifford holding a cigarette while looking trough an opened book, says: “Frank Gifford today.  Now one of pro football’s all-time greats, Frank’s still a satisfied Lucky smoker.”  The wording at the bottom of the ad says:

“The taste of Luckies spoils you for other cigarettes.  ‘Taste is the reason I started smoking Luckies,’ says Frank, ‘and taste is the reason I’m still a Lucky man. ‘ How about you?  Get the taste you’ll stay with.  Get the fine tobacco-taste of Lucky Strike.”

Frank Gifford, former New York Giants football star, appears in early 1960s magazine ad for Lucky Strike cigarettes.
Frank Gifford, former New York Giants football star, appears in early 1960s magazine ad for Lucky Strike cigarettes.

“Taste Great”

         In another early 1960s ad for Lucky Strike, Gifford is shown relaxing in a home den type setting with his football trophies behind him, cigarette in hand, as he lends his name to the Lucky Strike brand.  The caption beneath his photo- graph reads:

     “Frank Gifford, former All-Pro halfback for the New York Football Giants, remembers more than fifteen yeas of great football.  A Lucky Strike smoker, Frank remembers how great his first Lucky tasted: ‘And Luckies still taste great,’ he says. ‘This one still delivers that full, rich tobacco taste.’  How about you?  Change to Luckies and get some taste for a change.”

     In addition to advertising for Lucky Strike cigarettes, Gifford, a popular sports figure in New York in the early 1960s, also did ads for other products including: Vitalis hair tonic, Jantzen swim wear, Dry Sack sherry, and Palmolive Rapid Shave.

In a 2013 interview by Mark Weinstein, Gifford was asked about his Lucky Strike cigarette ads. Here’s some of that exchange:

MW: “…And I’m wondering if, knowing what we now know about the adverse health effects of tobacco, you have any regrets about your association with Lucky Strike?”

FG: “I do, but only in the sense that when the Surgeon General’s report came out [January 1964], I very openly quit smoking. I quit the day the report came out. And that was the end of the advertising, too. I was making more doing that—potentially, anyway—than I was playing football. But that was the end of it. I said, ‘I’m not going to do it anymore.’ It’s been kind of lost in the pages of history, I guess, but that’s exactly what happened.”


Injury & Comeback

Frank Gifford (No. 16), New York Giants, running with ball against the Washington Redskins, Yankee Stadium, November 29, 1959.  Photo, Neil Leifer.
Frank Gifford (No. 16), New York Giants, running with ball against the Washington Redskins, Yankee Stadium, November 29, 1959. Photo, Neil Leifer.
     In a 1960 game against the Philadelphia Eagles, Gifford was hit very hard on a passing play by Eagles’ linebacker Chuck Bednarik, and was knocked out of the game.  Gifford suffered a severe neck injury, forcing him out of active play for 18 months – occurring in the prime of his career.  The injury led him to retire from football temporarily.  In 1962 Gifford returned to pro football and resumed playing for the Giants, this time as a flanking, wide receiver.  Gifford made an impressive come back, learning and excelling at the new position, becoming a star once again.  In fact, he was selected to the Pro Bowl as wide receiver in 1964.  At the end of that season, however, Gifford retired for good.

     In 12 seasons with the New York Giants, Gifford proved a versatile and valuable player.  As a running back, he had 3,609 rushing yards and 34 touchdowns in 840 carries.  As a receiver he had 367 receptions for 5,434 yards and 43 touchdowns.  Gifford was also a halfback who could throw, and completed 29 of the 63 passes he attempted for 823 yards and 14 touchdowns.  Gifford was also one of those rare players in the early modern era who played both offense and defense.  In fact, during his carreer, he had Pro Bowl selections at three different positions — defensive back, running back, and wide receiver.  Gifford was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame on July 30, 1977, and in the year 2000, his New York Giants’ No. 16 playing numeral was formally retired.


L-to-R, Don Meredith, Howard Cosell and Frank Gifford, the broadcast team for ABC-TV’s “Monday Night Football,” 1972.
L-to-R, Don Meredith, Howard Cosell and Frank Gifford, the broadcast team for ABC-TV’s “Monday Night Football,” 1972.
Broadcast Booth

     After his playing days ended, Frank Gifford became a full-time sports broadcaster for NFL games on CBS radio and TV.  By 1971 he became a play-by-play announcer on ABC’s Monday Night Football with Howard Cosell and Don Meredith – Meredith a former Dallas Cowboy football star.  In 1995, Gifford was given the Pete Rozelle Award by the Pro Football Hall of Fame for his NFL television work.  Gifford remained at Monday Night Football until 1998, when he left the show.  He also appeared on other ABC sports programs, including Olympic Games coverage, ABC’s Wide World of Sports, various sports personality profiles.  He also appeared as a guest on non-sports TV shows from time to time, including ABC-TV’s Good Morning America, where he met his third wife, Kathie Lee, a popular TV host.  The two were married in 1986 and would have two children together.  Throughout the late 1980s and the 1990s, millions of morning-TV viewers who watched ABC’s Live with Regis and Kathie Lee would often hear Kathie Lee Gifford’s descriptions of life at home with her sportscaster husband and their two children.  Frank and Kathie Lee Gifford have also used their celebrity to raise money for charitable causes.

     See also at this website, “Celebrity Gifford,” a longer story on the football, broadcasting, and celebrity history of Frank Gifford. Other stories on celebrity advertising at this website include, for example: Dennis Hopper pitching retirement planning for Ameriprise Financial, Madonna in a 1989 Pepsi ad, and John Wayne in 1950s’ Camel cigarette ads. Thanks for visiting. – Jack Doyle

Please Support
this Website

Donate Now

Thank You

_______________________________

Date Posted:  29 March 2010
Last Update:  5 January 2014
Comments to:  jdoyle@pophistorydig.com

Article Citation:
Jack Doyle, “Gifford For Luckies, 1961-1962,”
PopHistoryDig.com, March 29, 2010.

_______________________________________



Sources, Links & Additional Information

Frank Gifford football trading card from 1955 in protective case. Card was issued originally by Bowman Football Cards as #7 in a series. This card is graded and registered by PSA, Professional Sports Authenticator.  “EX-MT” means the card is in “excellent-to-mint” condition, followed by a numerical grade.
Frank Gifford football trading card from 1955 in protective case. Card was issued originally by Bowman Football Cards as #7 in a series. This card is graded and registered by PSA, Professional Sports Authenticator. “EX-MT” means the card is in “excellent-to-mint” condition, followed by a numerical grade.
“Frank Gifford in TV Series,” New York Times, Thursday, January 21, 1960, p. 63.

William R. Conklin, “Star Back Signed by Radio Station; Gifford Retires as Player but Giants Hope to Keep Him in Advisory Post,” New York Times, Friday, February 10, 1961.

Robert M. Lipsytet, “Gifford Returns as a Player; Giants’ Halfback, 31, Gives Up Duties as Broadcaster; Back Holds 3 Club Records,” New York Times, Tuesday, April 3, 1962, Sports, p. 48.

“Pro Football May Seem Tame to Giant’s Gifford After Thrill of Making TV Ads,” Advertising Age 1963; 34(25): 64

Mike Puma, “Gifford Was Star in Backfield, Booth,” Sport Century Biography, ESPN Classics, ESPN.com.

Mike Puma, “Versatile Gifford Led the Giants,” ESPN.com, Wednesday, November 19, 2003.

Richard W. Pollay, “Promises, Promises : Self-Regulation of U.S. Cigarette Broadcast Advertising in The 1960s,” Tobacco Control 1994; 3: 134-144.

“Frank Gifford,” Wikipedia.org

Paul Wilkes, “Frank Gifford Talks a Good Game These Days,” New York Times, Sunday, December 14, 1969, p. D-27.

M. Jocelyn Elders, Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People: A Report of the Surgeon General, 1994, Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 314pp.

“Kathie Lee Gifford,” Wikipedia.org.

Mark Weinstein, “Frank Gifford: Icon” (Interview with Gifford ), BlueNatic, Tuesday, August 20, 2013.

“History of the Surgeon General’s Reports on Smoking and Health,” CDC.gov.



Home | About | Videos | Archive | Custom Research | Donate | Contact
© 2014 The Pop History Dig, LLC design by: Mindstorm Interactive, Inc.