After three years of running “unofficially” for president, JFK made it official on January 2nd, 1960, announcing his candidacy for President of the United States.
Since 1957, Senator John F. Kennedy had been running “unofficially” for his party’s presidential nomination. For three years he had traveled the country, making speeches, helping other Democrats in their election fights, and building his own campaign organization as he went. Journalist and presidential campaign historian Teddy White would later observe: “No Democrat, not even Adlai Stevenson, spoke in more states, addressed more Jefferson-Jackson Day dinners, participated in more local and mayoralty campaigns of deserving Democrats than did John F. Kennedy.”
By White’s count Kennedy had not only visited every state of the union, but had done something even more important: “[H]is intelligence files bulged with what was possibly the most complete index ever made of the power structure of any national party.” Now, in January 1960, JFK was ready to make it official.
In Washington, on January 2nd in the U.S. Senate Caucus Room, amid a crowd of more than 300 friends, family, Senate colleagues, Democratic party officials and national press, Kennedy made clear his intent to run for and win both the Democratic Presidential Nomination and that fall’s national election.
January 4, 1960: The Herald Republican of Springfield, MA, announces JFK’s formal entry into Presidential race.
It was a Saturday morning when JFK made his announcement, insuring he would get good newspaper coverage in the Sunday editions. In making his announcement, Kennedy laid down the gauntlet of the Democratic primary elections as the true testing ground, saying those seeking to compete with him should do so in the primaries. He specifically mentioned senators Lyndon Johnson of Texas and Stuart Symington of Missouri, suggesting that if such rivals couldn’t beat him in the primaries they wouldn’t be able to beat Richard Nixon in the fall. For starters, he would enter the March 8th New Hampshire primary and would announce his plans for other state primaries in the weeks that followed. Kennedy also made clear to Democratic leaders that he was running for the Presidential nomination of his party, and under no circumstances would he be a candidate for Vice President, as some had suggested. Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota was also an announced candidate, having made his announcement in late December 1959. Many of the old school Democrats still believed Kennedy was too young, too Catholic, and too inexperienced to receive his party’s nomination. At age 42, he was the youngest presidential candidate in U.S. history.
Jan 1960: JFK being interviewed shortly after announc-ing his candidacy with Jackie by his side, U.S. Senate Caucus room, Wash., D.C. Photo, Hank Walker, Life.
As Kennedy campaigned in 1960, he would be buffeted by events of the day. In early February, four black students staged a sit-in at a lunch counter at Greensboro, North Carolina to protest a “whites only serving policy,” a civil rights action that was one of many in the South that had begun in the mid- and late-1950s, and would continue through the 1960s.
In May, an American U-2 spy plane, piloted by Francis Gary Powers, was shot down over Russia with Powers taken prisoner. In late June, a ten nation disarmament conference closed after failing to reach agreement on nuclear arms control. In July, the U.S. cut its sugar imports from Cuba by 95 percent, prompting rebel leader, Fidel Castro to begin confiscating U.S. assets and property there.
In the “space race” that year, the U.S. launched its first weather satellite, Tiros I; the first experimental communications satellite, Echo I; and the first spy satellite, Corona. The Soviets, meanwhile, put another of their Sputnik series into orbit, this one with two dogs on board, returning them safely to earth. In sports, the Summer Olympics were held in Rome where a young boxer from Louisville, Kentucky named Cassius Clay won the light heavyweight gold medal.
“The Remarkable Kennedys,” by Joe McCarthy, published in Feb 1960, was billed as “the dramatic, inside story” of JFK “and his remarkable family.”
Among best-selling books that year were: To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee; Rabbit, Run, by John Updike; and The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, by William L. Shirer. The first oral contraceptives came into use in 1960 and Elvis Presley had three No. 1 hits that year: “Stuck on You,” “It’s Now or Never,” and “Are You Lonesome Tonight?” It was also 1960 when the famous dance tune, “The Twist,” by Chubby Checker was first released. Other popular songs that year included: “Theme From Summer Place” by Percy Faith; “Cathy’s Clown” by the Everly Brothers; “Stay” by Maurice Williams; “Beyond the Sea” by Bobby Darin; “Georgia on My Mind” by Ray Charles; and “Last Date,” a piano tune by Floyd Cramer.
At the box office that year, Spartacus, Psycho, Exodus, Oceans 11, and Butterfield 8 were among the top grossing films. And several of the actors and actresses appearing in those films would become active JFK supporters, including Tony Curtis, Janet Leigh, Frank Sinatra, and Sammy Davis, Jr.
As the early 1960 race began, the first notable contests for Kennedy and the Democrats came in the Wisconsin and West Virginia primaries – April 5th and May 10th, repectively – both of which Kennedy would win, but not without controversy and considerable effort. Kennedy’s victory over Humphrey in Wisconsin was helped by Catholic voters in some districts, yet his margin of victory was not strong enough in other districts where there were no Catholics. That meant the next primary in West Virginia – a state that was 95 percent Protestant – would be a more telling test of Kennedy’s non-Catholic appeal, watched closely by party bosses.
April 1960: JFK campaigning in the tiny hamlet of Ona, West Virginia prior to that state’s May 10th primary.
Kennedy scored a solid victory in West Virginia, knocking Humphrey out of the race. The win in West Virginia, plus Wisconsin, gave Kennedy two early primary victories, and also gave his campaign momentum, helping him to win a string of primaries through May and June while wooing important governors and party insiders along the way.
Heading into the July Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles, Kennedy was the odds-on favorite for the nomination, but there were still vestiges of the old “brokered convention” in play, where back-room wheeling and dealing could still generate surprises and dark-horse candidates. Kennedy very definitely had momentum, but he didn’t have a lock on the nomination.
In July 1960, as Democrats gathered at the year-old Sports Arena in Los Angeles for the Democratic National Convention, there were still a number of other candidates who could alter the nomination process, including: Sen. Lyndon Johnson of Texas, the powerful majority leader of the U.S. Senate, who claimed to have 500 or more delegates committed to his candidacy; Sen. Stuart Symington of Missouri, a candidate backed by former president, Harry S. Truman; Adlai Stevenson, the Democrats’ presidential nominee in 1952 and 1956, and a favorite of liberals; and Senators Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota and Wayne Morse of Oregon, JFK primary opponents. There was also California Gov. Pat Brown, regarded a “favorite son” possibility.
25 July 1960: Life magazine features happy convention delegates on its cover, with tagline, “The Demonstration for Jack Kennedy.”
Life magazine’s July 25th edition, covering the DNC, featured celebrating JFK conventioneers on its cover with the tagline, “The Demonstration for Jack Kennedy.” But the magazine also reported on the convention’s inside politics and how “the Kennedy organization” was showing itself as something of new political phenomenon.
Life’s writers noted that Kennedy was a formidable figure and not merely some Harvard pretty boy. In fact, Kennedy and his 34-year-old brother and campaign manager, Robert, were, according to Life’s reporters, “steam-rolling the crafty old pros of the party with ruthless efficiency….” They were bringing “a new era of American politics” to the Democratic party and delivering “a brand-new and youthful set of owners and operators….” And of course, there was also something else Life’s writers noted: “Kennedy had the magic essential for a candidate, the ability to get votes.”
On July 13, 1960, JFK secured the Democratic nomination on the first ballot. The next day, over the objection of his brother Bobby, organized labor and others, he selected Lyndon Johnson to be his running mate, and the Convention approved. Kennedy would need Texas to win, and that fact above all else, meant Johnson was the best choice. Closing out the convention at the Los Angeles Coliseum with his “New Frontier” speech before TV cameras and a live stadium audience of 50,000 plus, Kennedy and his party went forward, energized for the fall campaign ahead.
July 15, 1960: JFK at the Los Angeles Coliseum speaking before some 52,000 and another 35 million on television. “Today our concern must be with [the] future.... The old era is ending. The old ways will not do…. We stand today on the edge of a New Frontier… ”
Once on the campaign trail, the Kennedy-Johnson ticket covered the entire country, with LBJ barnstorming the South, and Kennedy focusing on a core of some 17 Northeast, industrial, and West Coast states crucial in the electoral arithmetic.
For Kennedy, 1960 was the final stretch in an odyssey that had begun at the 1956 DNC, where he almost won the VP slot. Campaigning as his own man from 1957 on, Kennedy had traveled far and wide, and he had grown as a speaker and campaigner. He had also learned a great deal about the American people and his party. According to aides Kenny O’Donnell and Dave Powers, from late August 1960 until the first Tuesday in November, JFK traveled to speaking appearances and rallies in 237 cities. Nixon, by their count, went to 168 cities.
By Labor Day 1960, when Kennedy formally kicked off his fall campaign in Michigan, his oratory skills had risen to peak form, hitting themes of universal appeal with new and vivid language, inspiring thousands with calls for a better America. By late October, Russell Baker of the New York Times would observe: “…[I]n the last month he has flowered into a magnificent campaigner with a Pied Piper magic over the street crowds, and especially the ladies,“…[Kennedy] has flowered into a magnificent cam- paigner with a Pied Piper magic over the street crowds, and especially the ladies…” - R. Baker, NY Times and with a considerable talent for what is ungraciously called rabble-rousing.” That JFK was appealing to women of all ages was no surprise, some calling out their affections for him from the crowds. Life magazine would report in its last issue before the November 8th election: “The blissful fog of feminine adoration surrounding Jack Kennedy — the great phenomenon of the 1960 campaign — grew even thicker in the last days of his tour.” Teddy White would later recount one Southern Senator’s observation that JFK embodied “the best qualities of Elvis and Franklin D. Roosevelt.” But Kennedy’s campaign also garnered the respect of the journalists who followed him.“The consensus of newspapermen who are watching his performance,” wrote syndicated columnist Roscoe Drummond, “‘[is] that he is more articulate than either President Eisenhower or former President Truman, more direct and understandable than Adlai Stevenson, and has much of the charm of Franklin D. Roosevelt.”
JFK’s on-screen appearance during the first Presidential TV debate of Sept 26th, 1960 was believed by some to have been a decisive factor.
The key momentum for the Kennedy campaign, however, did not come from the meet-the-folks retail politics of personal handshakes and Rotary Club speeches – of which there were plenty. Rather, it came in a television studio at station WBBM in Chicago on September 26, 1960. For that was the evening when Kennedy’s movie-star good looks and confident style stole the show from Dick Nixon and got the attention of a nation looking for something new.
“I think the most important moment was in that first television debate with Richard Nixon,” noted Kennedy historian Robert Dallek in a November 2013 National Public Radio interview, “when Kennedy came across as presidential. As someone who was poised, who was witty, charming, handsome and deserved to be president of the United States.”
The 1960 election was a time when television gained as the medium of politics; when image began to play an outsize role in modern culture, and JFK was among the first beneficiaries. There were 85 million television sets in America by then, nearly one set for every two Americans. “When that [first] debate was over,” CBS producer Don Hewitt would later say, “I realized that we didn’t have to wait for an election day. We just elected a president. It all happened on television.” Still, there four TV debates in all, and Nixon regained some ground in the later debates. However, old-fashioned politics were still very much alive in 1960 – when strategic, well-timed, or accidental events could figure into the electoral calculus. And Kennedy’s organization was attuned to such possibilities, if only by the help of perceptive staffers.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. being interviewed by WSB-TV reporter upon leaving the Georgia State Prison at Reidsville, Oct 27, 1960. Civil Rights Digital Library.
One of those moments came in October 1960, after civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King (MLK) was jailed in a Georgia prison for a trumped-up parole violation following his participation in a student sit-in. Harrison Wofford, then a campaign aide working in the lower bowels of the JFK campaign in Sargent Shriver’s department, but who years later would become a U.S. Senator, learned about the King situation. Wooford advised that Kennedy should become involved. His idea worked its way up the chain of command, first to Shriver, and eventually to JFK, who made a brief call to King’s wife, Coretta Scott King. Bobby Kennedy, however, was furious about the call, believing word of JFK’s action would alienate southern Democrats. Bobby later calmed down and helped secure King’s release after Jack did some back-channel calling to state officials. Meanwhile, Martin Luther King’s father, who some called “Daddy King,” a prominent Baptist minister,After the Kennedys helped MLK get out of jail, “Daddy King,” a Baptist preacher planning to vote for Nixon, promised “a whole suit- case full of votes” for JFK. was quite thankful for the Kennedy involvement and said as much in a public statement to the press a few days later, noting at one point that he had “a whole suitcase full of votes” he would send JFK’s way. Daddy King, a registered Republican, had endorsed Richard Nixon, and previously opposed Kennedy because he was a Catholic. But now the tide had turned, and the Kennedy campaign made the most of it. According to Evan Thomas, writing in his book, Robert Kennedy, A Life, JFK’s campaign, in its final days, published hundreds of thousands of leaflets and handbills that were distributed at black churches and bars. Included was one flyer that read on one side: “Jack Kennedy called Mrs. King,” and on the other side — “Richard Nixon did not.” Many political analysts believe that JFK’s phone call and Bobby’s intercession on behalf of MLK – and the resulting notice these actions received in the black community – figured into the election’s outcome, as black voters shifted to Kennedy in several states and key urban areas. MLK himself, however, never endorsed either candidate.
JFK in a private moment aboard his campaign plane, The Caroline, which logged thousands of miles during the primary and general election campaigns.
Toward the end of October 1960, Kennedy was drawing very large and energized crowds, especially in Pennsylvania, a key battleground state that held 32 electoral votes – as many as California and second only to New York. Between October 28th and October 31st, Kennedy and his team made a blitz of cities and towns in the eastern half of Pennsylvania.
Beginning with three morning speeches in Allentown on October 28th, a 20-car Kennedy motorcade then headed north visiting a string of towns, including: Pottsville, McAdoo, Hazleton, Ashley, Sugar Notch, Nanticoke, Plymouth, and finally Wilkes-Barre and Scranton. In Hazleton, thousands jammed Main Street to hear Kennedy, standing shoulder-to-shoulder. In Wilkes-Barre, also on the 28th, an estimated crowd of 30,000 converged on Public Square to hear the senator. These were substantial crowds for small and medium-sized towns. The New York Times, reporting on Kennedy’s campaigning in the region on October 29, 1960, headlined its story, “Kennedy Cheered in Pennsylvania; 500,000 Acclaim Senator as He Motors Through Area of High Unemployment.”
October 28, 1960: JFK – on platform, lower left -- speaks to an overflow crowd jamming the downtown area of Hazelton, Pennsylvania (streets to Kennedy's left, not shown, were equally jammed). The Hazelton stop was among at least a dozen other Pennsylvania towns he visited that day.
On the evening of October 28th, it was back to the Philadelphia area for a fundraising dinner and speech, followed the next day by visits throughout the Philadelphia metro area at eight more stops – from Chester and Upper Darby to Roosevelt Field in Norristown and Snellenburg’s Shopping Center in Willow Grove. More Philadelphia area campaigning followed on October 30th and 31st, including stops at a bonds-for-Israel rally, the Raymond Rose apartments, Rayburn Plaza, and Temple University. Thousands had come out for these rallies, as they did in the rain in Philadelphia, Chester, and at the town square in Valley Forge where they heard JFK summon Revolutionary War history: “Men here knew the deadly meaning of danger, but they also preserved the bright hope of opportunity.” In the end, Kennedy’s Pennsylvania blitz paid off: he carried the state and won its 32 electoral votes.
Nov 4, 1960: JFK rides in car with Chicago Mayor, Richard J. Daley, right, during torchlight parade through city.
“The Irish Prince”
On November 4, 1960, with only five days left until the election, Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley orchestrated a huge torchlight parade for Kennedy through the city, culminating at a Chicago Stadium event that was broadcast over national television (NBC). An estimated 1.5 million came out for the Chicago parade and the rally. At the stadium, Mayor Daley introduced John F. Kennedy to a sold-out audience, as “the Irish Prince.”
In the final week of the race, JFK’s schedule was truly punishing, traveling the breadth of the country, with non-stop campaigning. As aide Kenny O’Donnell would later write, ticking off the stops and how little sleep Kennedy had: “During the closing week of the campaign – Sunday and Monday in Philadelphia, Tuesday in Los Angeles, Wednesday in San Francisco, Thursday in Phoenix, Albuquerque, Amarillo, Wichita Falls and Oklahoma City, Friday in Virginia, Ohio and Chicago, Saturday in New York, Sunday in Connecticut, Long Island, New Jersey and Maine, and… Monday in New England and Boston – he had never gotten four hours of sleep on any night.” But there were some sights to behold in those final days, as O’Donnell would also recount in two episodes, one in Connecticut, late Saturday night November 5th, and the other in Maine, late Sunday night, November 6th:
…We landed in the Caroline [campaign plane] at Bridgeport after midnight and drove from there in a motorcade along Route 8 in the Naugatuck River Valley to Waterbury. All along the road, for more than twenty-seven miles, there were crowds of cheering people, waving torches and red lights, most of them wearing coats over their pajamas and nightgowns, and at the firehouses in every town the fire engines were lines up beside the road with their lights flashing, bells ringing, and sirens wailing.“…All along the road, for more than twenty-seven miles, there were crowds of cheering people, waving torches and red lights, most of them wearing coats over their pajamas and nightgowns…” Although it was almost three o’clock in the morning when we reached Waterbury, there was a roaring crowd of more than forty thousand people in the city square outside the Roger Smith Hotel where Kennedy was to spend the night…
…Then [late Sunday] he flew at night to Lewiston, Maine, arriving there at one-thirty. Lewiston was cold and the airport was dark and empty. The advance man and the few local party leaders who met us at the plane hurried Kennedy into a car and drove him in the the city without saying anything about where he was going. The streets were quiet and empty. He glanced at me questioningly, wondering what he was doing in a freezing cold Maine factory town in the middle of the night when everybody seemed to be in bed. Then we drove into a park where a crowd of more than twenty thousand people were waiting, carrying torchlights. Coming from the cold darkness and stillness of the drive from the airport to the sudden glare of torchlighted area, filled with warmth and excited people, Kennedy was stunned. “My God, isn’t this unbelievable?” he said. Then the crowd recognized him, there was a roar of cheering that could be heard for miles away.
Still, the early November election polls had Nixon and Kennedy pretty much in a dead heat.
JFK and Jackie both voted in Boston on election day then traveled to Hyannis Port to join family, friends, and key campaign staff to await election returns. AP photo.
On election day, Tuesday November 8th JFK and Jackie voted in Boston then traveled to Hyannis Port, Massachusetts to join family, friends, and core campaign staff to monitor the election returns. As the early vote came in from large cities in the East and Midwest – Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Detroit, and Chicago – Kennedy had a large lead in the popular and electoral vote. It appeared he was headed for certain victory. However, after some premature TV declarations of Kennedy wins in selected states – and some retractions – an hours-long “too-close-to-call” contest set in, stretching late into the night and next day. As later election returns came in during the early a.m hours of November 9th – especially from the rural and suburban Midwest, Western states, and Pacific Coast states – Nixon began to catch up. Some newspapers, including the New York Times, had already prepared “Kennedy Elected” headline copy. But the election was still too close to call.
Nov 8, 1960: Election-night coverage by NBC-TV team of Chet Huntley & David Brinkley at desk, with posted election returns.
By 3 a.m, Eastern Time, Kennedy’s popular vote lead – which had been about 2.3 million votes at midnight – had nearly evaporated, and some commentators were saying he might win the presidency with the electoral vote, but lose the popular vote. When Nixon appeared with his wife at the podium in the Ambassador Hotel at 12:30 a.m. Pacific Time (3:30 a.m. EST), four key states were still undecided — California, Illinois, Michigan, and Minnesota. Only if Kennedy lost all four of these states could Nixon win. As journalist Teddy White put it: “[T]hough Nixon had almost certainly lost, Kennedy had yet not definitely won.” In a televised address from the Ambassador Hotel that night, with a tearful Pat by his side, Nixon told the crowd, “[A]s I look at the board here; while there are still some results to come in,…if the present trend continues, Senator Kennedy will be the next President of the United States.” This wasn’t a Nixon concession, however – as one of his aids, Herb Klein, followed Nixon to say just that. On the East coast, Kennedy’s people, watching the telecast, were furious. But JFK himself, also watching, said: “Why should he concede? I wouldn’t.” And with that, at nearly 4. a.m., JFK went to bed to await the outcome.
Nov 9, 1960 a.m. edition of Los Angeles Times has JFK “nearing victory” amid Nixon’s conditional concession.
By 6:30 a.m. EST the next morning, at NBC-TV in New York, Chet Huntley and David Brinkley, having covered the returns for12 straight hours, were still on the air, but had no official final result to broadcast. At around 11:00 a.m. EST on Wednesday morning, November 9th, Nixon still hadn’t conceded. JFK at that point was believed to be 11 electoral votes short of victory, even though at least one TV network had called the election for Kennedy earlier that morning. At about 12:30 EST, Minnesota was added to JFK’s column, which then put him over the top. Within 10 minutes or so of that announcement on TV, a telegram for JFK arrived at Hyannis Port from Nixon: “I want to repeat through this wire congratulations and best wishes I extended to you on television last night. I know that you have united support of all Americans as you lead this nation in the cause of peace and freedom during the next four years.” The Nixon telegram was also read about the same time before TV cameras by Nixon aide Herb Klein. Kennedy had defeated Nixon in one of the closest presidential elections of the twentieth century. In the national popular vote Kennedy led Nixon by just two-tenths of one percent (49.7% to 49.5%), while in the electoral vote – with 269 needed to win – Kennedy received 303 and Nixon 219.
Nov 9th, 1960: Famous photo of JFK with daughter Caroline awaiting final election results at Hyannis Port.
The 1960 Kennedy campaign, in many ways, was a watershed in modern political campaigning. Kennedy and his team broke the mold of what had gone before and set a new style that blended both old and new, tapped into popular culture (e.g., Sinatra’s Rat Pack), and made the most of television. Historian Robert Dallek has stated that no one has yet created a new template the way Kennedy did.
What follows below is an abbreviated timeline of JFK’s campaigning in 1960 – from the primaries of early 1960, through the Democratic National Convention (DNC) in July, to the final fall campaign, September through election day. The left hand column includes a shorthand listing of known campaign stops, speech titles or general topics, meetings, endorsements, and related press and other activities during 1960. The right hand column includes related photos, magazine covers, newspaper clips and other items from the 1960 campaign. Additional photos and campaign information appear below the timeline, in “Sources, Links & Additional Information” at the bottom of this article.
See also at this website additional stories on JFK’s “road to the White House,” including separate stories on his campaigning in 1957, 1958, and 1959, as well as other related stories such as, “The Jack Pack, 1958-1960.” Thanks for visiting – and please consider supporting this website. Thank you. - Jack Doyle(Note: For best viewing below, do not use Explorer. -j.d.)
Jan 2, 1960: Newsreel title screen for story about JFK’s announcement. Newsreels were then used in theaters.
Jan 14, 1960: JFK outlines his strategy for the presidency at the National Press Club in Wash., D.C. Photo, UPI.
Jan 1960: JFK & Jackie campaigning in New Hampshire.
Jan 25, 1960: Nashua Telegraph headlines suggest a favorable showing in New Hampshire after JFK and wife Jackie visited the state in January.
Feb 6, 1960: JFK makes a quick trip to Charleston, WV to file for the state’s May 10th primary election where he will face Sen. Hubert Humphrey. Kennedy, at the desk of State Secretary Joe Burdette, is talking with the press. At left is Neil Boggs of WSAZ. Photo, WV State Archives.
Feb 8, 1960: Frank Sinatra with JFK outside The Sands hotel in Las Vegas where Kennedy stayed during a campaign swing. Sinatra would go “all out” for JFK in 1960. Click for Sinatra & “Jack Pack” story.
Feb 8, 1960: JFK arriving in Roseburg, Oregon, where he is met by a local delegation that includes Edward Murphy (c), his Douglas County campaign manager, and State Rep. W.O. Kelsey (r). Photo, The Oregonian.
Feb 17, 1960: JFK, at the Hotel Retlaw in Fond du Lac, WI, where a large photo of his likeness was mounted behind him, spoke on the topic of “Water Pollution,” noting that in 1959 the beaches of Milwaukee had been closed because the water was unsafe and unhealthy.
JFK, on a winter visit to Manchester, NH, greets student supporters at St. Anselm’s College who have brought along a donkey, symbol of the Democratic Party.
Los Angeles Times headline announces JFK and Nixon victories in the March 8, 1960 New Hampshire primary.
Vying presidential hopefuls in the 1960 Wisconsin Democratic primary, Humphrey & Kennedy, shown on the March 28, 1960 cover of ‘Life’ magazine as they compete for, among other interests, the dairy farm vote.
March 30, 1960: Campaigning early a.m. at the Manitowoc Shipyards in Wisconsin, JFK greets arriving workers and brothers, Ralph and Berlin Schroeder.
April 3rd, 1960: JFK watching a TV playback of an earlier TV appearance in Milwaukee, Wisconsin leading up to the April 5th Wisconsin primary. AP photo.
April 5, 1960: JFK & team working the phones on WI primary night. Behind JFK from left: Pierre Salinger, Kennedy O’Donnell and Larry O’Brien. RFK is on the extreme right.
April 5th, 1960: CBS newsman Walter Cronkite interviews JFK during the Wisconsin primary vote.
April 1960: As JFK stepped off his campaign plane at the Tucson Arizona Municipal Airport, he was greeted by about 150 supporters, some waving “Viva! Kennedy” placards. He was also given a sombrero and a cowboy hat. Photo, Tucson Citizen.
April 9th, 1960: JFK, Rep. Stewart Udall, and guest enjoy a light moment during a Democratic luncheon in Tucson, AZ. Udall would later become Kennedy’s Sec. of the Interior. Tucson Citizen photo.
April 1960: JFK campaigning in rural West Virginia in advance of the state's May 10th primary.
April 1960: JFK meeting with a group of coal miners near Mullens, West Virginia during a shift change while campaigning in Logan County during the West Virginia primary race.
May 1960: Part of the JFK story being disseminated during the election was Kennedy’s WWII heroics, put forward here in a “Man’s Magazine” cover story.
May 15th: JFK threw opening day baseball for Little League teams at Riverside ballpark in Portland, OR. Mike Gefroh caught ball and asked JFK to autograph it.
June 3, 1960: In Michigan, Mackinac Islanders welcome JFK, awarding him a key to the island. Gov. Williams introduced JFK to the crowd. Photo, Detroit News
June 16, 1960: JFK makes guest appearance on Jack Paar’s Tonight Show. Click for video.
June 19, 1960: U.S. Rep. George McGovern, right, joins JFK on the campaign trail in Sioux Falls, S.D.
July 2, 1960: A week before the DNC, former President, Harry Truman said Kennedy was “too young” & “not ready” and charged the DNC was “rigged” in his favor.
July 9, 1960: JFK arriving in Los Angeles for the Democratic National Convention, where he is the front- runner for the Democratic Presidential nomination.
July 13th: North Carolina delegates and LBJ supporters, Gov. Luther Hodges (holding paper) and Senator Sam Ervin Jr., right, at the DNC. Rumor had it that Kennedy was slipping in his bid for the nomination, as Southern delegates battled over civil rights and other issues.
July 14th, 1960: Los Angeles Times banner news head-line announcing JFK’s nomination victory at the DNC.
July 1960: Classic photo of LBJ, RFK & JFK during Johnson’s VP selection. Photo, Jacques Lowe
Aug 14,1960: JFK speaks at FDR Historic Home Site on 25th Anniversary of Social Security Act. Photo, NPS
Aug 14, 1960: JFK admiring bust of FDR while touring the FDR Library during his visit to Hyde Park, NY.
Aug 20, 1960: Cover for major farm conference in Des Moines, IA, with JFK& LBJ attending. JFK pledges Democratic action to raise farm income to “full parity” and “preserve family farming as a way of life.”
Aug 26, 1960: JFK waves to crowd as he leaves Cobo Hall in Detroit following speech to the VFW National Conven-tion. Photo, Tony Spina/Walter Reuther Library
Sept 6, 1960: JFK in Spokane, WA reading about his proposed “wheat plan” in the Spokane Daily Chronicle.
Sept 8-9, 1960: JFK speaking from back of train during two-day California whistlestop tour. Photo, C. Capa
Sept 13: JFK campaigning with LBJ, in Dallas, Texas.
Sept 16th: Crowd fills Penn Square, Lancaster, PA, to hear JFK speak. He also stopped at nearby Columbia, PA, as well as Reading, York and Lebanon, PA that day.
Poster announcing visit of JFK to the York Fair, in York, PA on September 16, 1960.
September 22, 1960: JFK, in backseat of Pontiac convertible, talks with farmer James Cox during a visit to his farm in Fort Dodge, Iowa. AP photo.
Sept 26, 1960: JFK and Richard Nixon appear in the first nationally-televised presidential debate, which many believe Kennedy won. With some 70 million viewers, that debate gave an enormous boost to Kennedy’s campaign. Up to 20 million fewer viewers watched the remaining 3 debates, in which Nixon fared better.
Sept 28, 1960: Erie, PA “Daily Times” headline: “40,000 Greet Kennedy in Erie,” with photo of JFK & crowd.
Sept 29: Female voter in Schenectady, NY makes her preference known. Jackie’s campaigning was limited by her pregnancy, though she made early and late campaign appearances, and was a popular and valued campaigner.
Campaign poster for JFK appearances on Oct 10th, 1960 at Gateway Center & Syria Mosque in Pittsburgh, PA.
Oct. 10, 1960: JFK addressing crowd at the LaGrange-Callaway Airport in Georgia, and would later visit Warm Springs, GA, former FDR retreat. Photo, Atlanta Journal
October 10th, 1960 edition of Newsweek features JFK-Nixon TV debates on its cover along with “stormy K,” a reference to Soviet Premier, Nikita Khrushchev.
October 19th, 1960: JFK & Jackie riding in motorcade during tickertape parade in New York City.
October 24th edition of “Rockford Register-Republic” chronicles JFK Illinois campaign visit, mentioning plans for a 5th national TV debate that never came about.
Oct 31: JFK campaigns in downtown Philadelphia, PA near Citizens for Kennedy-Johnson hdqtrs, 1431 Chestnut St. Photo, Evening Bulletin/Temple Univ.
Nov 1, 1960: JFK in blizzard of confetti in downtown Los Angeles during motorcade up Broadway, where it took more than 1 hour to travel 20 blocks. AP photo
Nov 4, 1960: Headline from ‘Chicago Daily News’ touting big Mayor Daley-backed torchlight parade and stadium rally for JFK that would draw 1.5 million.
Nov 7, 1960: JFK coming into Boston with a police escort after days of campaigning throughout New England. He would make a final campaign speech at the Boston Garden and another on national TV, ending his campaign.
November 9, 1960: A beaming Jackie Kennedy and a happy JFK, during his acceptance speech at the Hyannis Armory in Massachusetts following the long election night.
Jan 2: Wash., DC, Announces Candidacy
Jan 2: Universal-International Newsreel
Jan 2: Waltham, MA, Eleanore Roosevelt
Jan 3: Boston, MA, w/Advisory Group
Jan 3: Wash., DC, NBC’s Meet The Press
Jan 4: New York, NY
Jan 4: Wash. DC, Dinner w/ Joe Alsop
Jan 5: Wash., Dinner w/Ben & Toni Bradlee
Jan 5-6: Ohio Gov. Mike DiSalle for JFK
Jan 5: NH Campaign Office Opens
Jan 6: Wash., Dave Garroway TV filming
Jan 6: Wash., Women’s Nat’l Press Club
Jan 7: Parkersburg, WV, Campaign Mtg
Jan 7: Pres. Eisenhower, State of the Union
Jan 8: New York, Lunch w/ Look Editors
Jan 8: Wash, DC, Foreign Press Assoc.
Jan 8: ‘Kansans for Kennedy’ in Topeka
Jan 9: Nixon Announces Candidacy
Jan 9: Wash., DC, AFL-CIO Reception
Jan 11: Wash., DC, Board of Overseers
Jan 12: Wash., Walter Reuther Mtg.
Jan 12: Wash., Mass. Labor Leaders
Jan 13: Wash., Rep. Torbert MacDonald
Jan 14: Wash., DC, National Press Club
Jan 15: Louisville, KY
Jan 15-18: Palm Beach, FL, R&R
Jan 19: CA Gov. Pat Brown is Candidate
Jan 19: Wash., Lunch w/Joe Alsop
Jan 19: Wash., Bill Gillrick, Life
Jan 19: Wash., Franklin Roosevelt Jr.
Jan 20: Wash., John Oakes, NY Times
Jan 21: Milwaukee, WI with Jackie
Jan 21: Milwaukee Press Conference
Jan 22: Milwaukee, Pfister Hotel
Jan 22: Wash., DC, Gov. M. Williams
Jan 22: Wash., DC, Gov. Pat Brown
Jan 22: Wash., DC, Fundraising
Jan 23: Wash., National Committee
Jan 23: Wash., Pres. Kick-Off Dinner
Jan 24: Cambridge, MA, Harvard Club
Jan 24: Boston, MA, Jeff-Jackson Dinner
Jan 24: Nashua, NH, City Hall
Jan 24: Nashua, NH, Rotary Club
Jan 25: Manchester, NH
Jan 26: Baltimore, MD, Gov. Tawes
Jan 27: Omaha, NE, Labor Recep/Rally
Jan 28: Wash, DC, AP Photographers
Jan 28: Wash., Radio Interview/NY
Jan 30: Salt Lake City, UT, Luncheon
Jan 30: Salt Lake City, Press Conference
Jan 30: Salt Lake City, Later Day Saints
Jan 30: Salt Lake City, KCFX-TV Show
Jan 30: Salt Lake City, Labor Leaders
Jan 30: Salt Lake City, Dem Reception
Jan 30: Salt Lake City, Roosevelt Ball
Jan 31: Reno, NV, Gov’s Reception
Jan 31: Carson City, NV
Feb 1: Carson City, NV, State Legislature
Feb 2: Annapolis, Enters MD Primary
Feb 4: Indianapolis, Enters IN Primary
Feb 4: Gary, IN, Hotel Gary Reception
Feb 4: Gary, Int’l Institute, Benefit Dinner
Feb 5: Gary, Lake County Women’s Club
Feb 5: Gary, Hotel Gary, Press Conf.
Feb 5: E. Chicago, IN, Dem. Luncheon
Feb 5: Gary, IN, U.S. Steel Tour
Feb 5: Terre Haute, IN, Dem Reception
Feb 5: Terre Haute, WTBI-TV
Feb 5: Terre Haute, State Teacher’s Col.
Feb 6: Charleston, WV, Primary filing
Feb 6: Bismark, ND, Hotel Patterson
Feb 6: Bismark, KYFR-TV Interview
Feb 6: Bismark, ND, Young Dems Lunch
Feb 6: Jamestown, ND, Press Conf.
Feb 6: Stutsman County (ND) Dems
Feb 7: Albuquerque, NM, Western Conf.
Feb 7: Albuquerque, New Mexico Univ.
Feb 7: Albuquerque, Dem. Luncheon
Feb 7: Albuquerque, Civic Auditorium
Feb 7: Las Vegas, Sands Hotel, Press
Feb 8: Las Vegas, Conv. Center Spch
Feb 8: Conv. Center Gold Room Recep.
Feb 8: Las Vegas, Sands Hotel
Feb 9: Roseburg, OR, Dem. Committee
Feb 9: Roseburg, Visit Lumber Mill
Feb 9: Roseburg, ‘Better Housing’ Spch
Feb 9: Corvallis, OR, Dem. Committee
Feb 9: Corvallis, Dem. Women
Feb 9: Corvallis, Benton Hotel Spch
Feb 9: Albany, OR, St. Mary’s Hall
Feb 9: Portland, OR, Multnomah Hotel
Feb 10: Portland, Press Conference
Feb 10: Portland, Chamber of Commerce
Feb 10: Newport, OR, Yaquina Harbor
Feb 10: Newport, Georgia Pacific Mill
Feb 10: Newport, Dem. Dinner
Feb 10: Corvallis, OR, Oregon St. Univ.
Feb 10: Portland Airport Reception
Feb 10: Portland-to-Pullman, WA
Feb 10: Pullman, Wash. State Univ.
Feb 11: Spokane, WA, Gonzaga Univ.
Feb 11: Spokane, Whitworth College
Feb 11: Spokane, Labor Council
Feb 11: Spokane, WA, Dem Club Dinner
Feb 12: Palo Alto, CA, Stanford Univ.
Feb 12: Fresno, CA, Dem Clubs Convnt.
Feb 12: Fresno, Hotel Fresno Reception
Feb 13: NY, NY, Dem. State Com. Dinner
Feb 16: Ft Atkinson, Wisconsin
Feb 16: Ft Atkinson, Whitewater College
Feb 16: Lake Geneva, WI. Town Tour
Feb 16: Kenosha, WI, ‘Senior Citizens’
Feb 16: Kenosha, Campaign Song Aired
Feb 16: Madison, WI, Press Conference
Feb 17: Port Washington, WI
Feb 17: West Bend, WI
Feb 17: Mayville, WI, City Hall
Feb 17: Beaver Dam, WI, ‘Dairy Program’
Feb 17: Fond Du Lac, ‘Water Pollution’
Feb 18: Oshkosh, WI, Wisconsin Axle
Feb 18: Oshkosh, Oshkosh Overall plant
Feb 18: Oshkosh, WI, Oshkosh St. College
Feb 18: DePere, WI, St. Norbert’s College
Feb 18: Appleton, WI, Town Center
Feb 18: Green Bay, WI, Champion Paper
Feb 18: Green Bay, WI, ‘Minimum Wage’
Feb 19: Berlin, New Hampshire
Feb 19: Berlin, White Mnt Lumber Co.
Feb 19: Berlin, Burgess Mill
Feb 19: Berlin, Cascade Plant
Feb 19: Berlin, Granite State Lumber Co,
Feb 19: Hannover, NH, Dartmouth College
Feb 19: Lebanon, NH
Feb 19: Claremont, NH, Hotel Moody
Feb 19: Claremont, City Hall Reception
Feb 20: Hartford, CT, Gov’s Mansion
Feb 20: Hartford, Jeff-Jackson Dinner
Feb 24: Madison, WI, ‘Natural Resources’
Feb 24: Madison, WI, East Side Optimists
Feb 24: Portage, WI, ‘Forest Research’
Feb 25: Wausau, WI, ‘Unshared Abundance’
Feb 25: Antigo, WI, ‘Rural Elec Co-ops’
Feb 25: Medford, WI, ‘Natural Resources’
Feb 25: Abbotsford, WI, ‘Social Security’
Feb 26: Eau Claire, WI, ‘…Tight Money’
Feb 26: Chippewa Falls, WI, ‘Ag Research’
Feb 26: Bloomer, WI, ‘REA Co-ops’
Feb 26: Durand, WI, ‘Dairy Program’
Feb 29: U.S. Senate, ‘Investment for Peace’
Mar 4: Indianapolis, IN, File for Primary
Mar 4: Indianapolis, Press Conference
Mar 4: Indianapolis, Visit Campaign Hqtrs
Mar 4: Hutchinson, KS, Democratic Dinner
Mar 4: Gallup Poll: JFK 50%, Nixon 50%
Mar 5: Laconia, NH, Tavern Hotel Brk’fst
Mar 5: Franklin, NH, Reception
Mar 5: Concord, NH, Highway Hotel Recep.
Mar 5: Suncook, NH, Legion Sq. Reception
Mar 5: Manchester, NH, Champagne Mkt.
Mar 5: Manchester, St. Anselm’s College
Mar 5: Nashua, NH, Democratic Dinner
Mar 6: Berlin, NH, City Hall
Mar 6: Hanover, NH, Dartmouth College
Mar 6: Lebanon, NH, City Hall
Mar 6: Dartmouth College Speech
Mar 6: Claremont, NH, City Hall Recep.
Mar 7: Rochester, NH
Mar 7: Rochester, Hubbard Shoe Co.
Mar 7: Somersworth, NH
Mar 7: Somersworth, G.E. Meter Plant
Mar 7: Durham, NH, Lunch, Univ. of NH
Mar 7: Durham, New Hampshire Hall
Mar 7: Durham, Radio Q&A, WNDR
Mar 7: Newington, NH, Simplex Wire Co.
Mar 7: Portsmouth, NH, Press Conference
Mar 7: Dover, NH, City Hall Reception Mar 8: JFK Wins NH Primary
Mar 9: Madison, WI, Press Conference
Mar 9: Baraboo, WI, ‘Forest Products’
Mar 9: Reedsburg, WI, ‘Dairy Income’
Mar 9: Mauston, WI, ‘National Defense’
Mar 9: Sparta, WI
Mar 9: La Crosse, WI, ‘Distressed Areas’
Mar 10: Black Falls, WI
Mar 10: Fairchild, WI, Neillsville H.S.
Mar 10: Marshfield, WI
Mar 10: Stevens Pt., WI, ‘Farm Credit’
Mar 11: Manawa, WI, Coffee Hour
Mar 11: Clintonville, WI
Mar 11: Shawano, WI, ‘Dairy Industry’
Mar 11: New London, WI
Mar 11: Neemah, WI
Mar 11: Meesha, WI
Mar 11: Appleton, WI, Nat. Resources
Mar 12: Wash, DC, Gridiron Dinner
Mar 14: Wash., Building Trades Conf.
Mar 15: Nat’l Veterans For Kennedy
Mar 16: Charleston, WV, Press Conf.
Mar 16: Madison, WI, ‘Disarmament’
Mar 16: Madison, Univ of Wisconsin
Mar 16: Madison, Businessmen’s Club
Mar 17: Cornell, WI, ‘REA Co-ops’
Mar 17: Ladysmith, WI
Mar 17: Park Falls, WI
Mar 17: Mellen, WI
Mar 17: Montreal, WI
Mar 17: Hurley, WI
Mar 17: Ashland, WI
Mar 18: Washburn, WI,
Mar 18: Hayward. WI
Mar 18: Shall Lake, WI
Mar 18: Minong, WI
Mar 18: Gordon, WI
Mar 18: Superior, WI. ‘The Unemployed’
Mar 19: Milwaukee, WI, Press Conf.
Mar 19: Mukwonago, WI, Coffee Hour
Mar 19: Burlington, WI
Mar 19: Racine, WI, Young Democrats
Mar 19: Hayward, WI
Mar 19: Delavan, WI, ‘Small Business’
Mar 19: Janesville, WI, ‘Ag Research’
Mar 20: Milwaukee, WI, ‘Right to Vote’
Mar 20: Marionette, WI, ‘Farm Credit’
Mar 21: Indianapolis, IN, Primary Cert.
Mar 23: Milwaukee, NW Mutual Co.
Mar 23: Milwaukee, G.E. Plant Tour
Mar 23: Milwaukee, Schlitz Plant
Mar 23: Milwaukee, American Motors
Mar 23: Milwaukee, Jewish Com. Center
Mar 24: Sen. Symington Enters Race
Mar 24: Milwaukee, Telephone Co.
Mar 24: Milwaukee, Univ of WI / ‘Berlin’
Mar 24: Milwaukee, Miller Brewing
Mar 24: Kenosha, WI, Am. Motors Plant
Mar 24: Racine, WI, Reception
Mar 25: Hillsboro, WI, High School Spch
Mar 25: Gays Mills, WI
Mar 25: Muscoda, WI
Mar 25: Lancaster, WI, REA County Mtg.
Mar 25: Milwaukee, Univ of WI / ‘Cuba’
Mar 26: Detroit, MI, Dem Midwest Conf.
Mar 26: Cadillac, MI, Press Conference
Mar 27: Detroit, UAW Rally /‘Forand Bill’
Mar 28: Life cover story, WI Primary
Mar 29: Milwaukee, WI
Mar 29: Hudson, WI, ‘Ag Research’
Mar 30: Manitowoc, WI, ‘Farm Co-ops’
Mar 30: Manitowoc, Shipyard Workers
Mar 31: Oconomowoc, WI, ‘Nat’l Forests’
Apr 1: Dodgeville, WI, ‘Fighting Crime’
Apr 1: Beloit, WI, ‘Social Security’
Apr 2: Milwaukee, WI, ‘This Campaign’
Apr 2: Milwaukee, Assoc Student Councils
Apr 3: Milwaukee, ‘American Labor’
Apr 4: Milwaukee, Univ of WI, ‘Berlin’ Apr 5: JFK Wins Wisconsin Primary
Apr 5-6: Kennedy team gathers in WV
Apr 6: JFK at home, Georgetown/D.C.
Apr 7: Alexandria, IN, Farm Forum
Apr 7: Muncie, IN, Ball State University
Apr 7: Muncie, Luncheon /Press Conf
Apr 7: Muncie, Borg Warner /shift change
Apr 7: Lafayette, IN, Am Legion Reception
Apr 7: Lafayette, IN, Jeff-Jackson Dinner
Apr 8: South Bend, IN, Studebaker workers
Apr 8: Plymouth, IN, Marshall Co. Schools
Apr 8: Michawaka, IN, Bal Band plant
Apr 8: South Bend, IN, St. Mary’s College
Apr 8: South Bend, IN, Democratic Dinner
Apr 9: Flagstaff, AZ, Dem Breakfast
Apr 9: Tucson, AZ, ‘Nat Resource Devlpmnt’
Apr 9: Yuma, AZ, ‘High Interest Rates…’
Apr 9: Phoenix, AZ, ‘Natural Resources’
Apr 9: Phoenix, Democratic Reception
Apr 11: “Stop Kennedy” in WV reported
Apr 11: Parkersburg, WV, Elks Club Coffee
Apr 11: Charleston, Morris Harvey College
Apr 11: “ “, Kanawha Co. Court House
Apr 11: Charleston, Kanawha Hotel Lunch
Apr 11: Ona, WV, JFK/Post Office photo
Apr 11: Huntington, WV, Connors Steel
Apr 11: Huntington, Marshall College
Apr 11: Raleigh Co., WV, Airport Rally
Apr 11: Raleigh Co. Courthouse, Press
Apr 11: Beckley, WV, Slab Fork Coal Co.
Apr 11: Beckley, WV, ‘New Deal for WV’
Apr 12: N. Vincent Peale hits JFK religion Apr 12: JFK Wins Illinois Primary
Apr 14: Palm Beach, FL, JFK R&R
Apr 17: Clarksburg, WV, with Jackie
Apr 18: Clarksburg, WBOY-TV
Apr 18: Clarksburg, Jackson Hotel Coffee
Apr 18: Clarksburg, Hazel Atlas plant
Apr 18: Clarksburg, ‘The Unemployed’
Apr 18: Fairmont, WV
Apr 18: Fairmont, ‘Program for Coal’
Apr 18: Fairmont, Lunch/Palace Restaurant
Apr 18: Fairmont, Owens-Illinois Glass
Apr 18: Morgantown, WV, Sterling Faucet
Apr 18: Pursglove, WV, Miners’ Mem. Cntr
Apr 18: Morgantown, Hotel Morgan Recep.
Apr 18: Morgantown, WV, ‘Coal By Wire…’
Apr 19: Bethany, WV, Bethany College
Apr 19: Bethany, W. Liberty St. College
Apr 19: Wheeling, WV, TV Interview
Apr 19: JFK & others, NBC-TV Startime
Apr 19: Wheeling, Sylvania Plant
Apr 19: Wheeling, Press Conference
Apr 19: Wheeling, WV, ‘WV & Pentagon’
Apr 19: Beckley, WV, Arival
Apr 20: Beckley, Beckley Manufacturing
Apr 20: Mt Hope, WV, ‘Food For WV’
Apr 20: Oak Hill, WV, Collins H.S.
Apr 20: Fayetteville, WV
Apr 20: Gauley Bridge, WV, High School
Apr 20: Montgomery, WV, High School
Apr 20: Cedar Grove, WV
Apr 20: Cabin Creek, WV, Jack’s Supmkt.
Apr 20: Charleston, Owens-Illinois plant
Apr 20: Charleston, ‘Program For WV’
Apr 20: Huntington, Depressed Area Aid
Apr 21: Wash., DC, Newspaper Editors
Apr 22: Portland, OR, Arrival/Press Conf
Apr 22: Portland, Omark Industries plant
Apr 22: N. Clackamas, OR, High School
Apr 22: N. Clackamas, Chamber of Com.
Apr 22: Milwaukie, OR, Milwaukie H.S.
Apr 22: Beaverton, OR, First Methodist
Apr 22: Beaverton, Pendleton Mills
Apr 22: S. Eugene, OR, ‘Disarmament’
Apr 23: Medford, OR, Pear Blossom Parade
Apr 23: Medford, Lunch, Hotel Medford
Apr 23: Portland, OR, ‘Social Security’
Apr 23: Ashland, OR
Apr 23: Portland, Cleveland High School
Apr 25: Huntington, WV, Press Conf
Apr 25: Huntington, TV Address
Apr 25: Huntington, Huntington Mfg. Co.
Apr 25: Lavalette, WV, Veterans Hospital
Apr 25: Lavalette, Wayne Co. Courthouse
Apr 25, Crum, WV, Railroad Workers
Apr 25: Kermit, WV
Apr 25: Williamson, WV, ‘Older Citizens’
Apr 25: Omar, WV
Apr 25: Rossmore, WV, Courthouse
Apr 25: Logan, WV, ‘Coal’
Apr 26: Welsh, WV
Apr 26: Amherstdale, WV, with FDR, Jr.
Apr 26: Amherstdale, Nat’l Fuels Policy
Apr 26: Pineville, WV, Court House Spch
Apr 26: Oceana, WV
Apr 26: Man, WV, Bluefield Nat’l Guard
Apr 26: Glenwood, WV
Apr 26: Mullens, WV, ‘Natural Resources…’
Apr 26: Near Mullens, Itmann coal mine
Apr 26: Welsh, Municipal Bldg. Spch
Apr 26: Kimball, WV
Apr 26: Keystone, WV
Apr 26: Northfork, WV
Apr 26: Maybeury, WV
Apr 26: Bramwell, WV
Apr 26: Glenwood Pk, WV, ‘Food For WV’ Apr 26: JFK Wins MA Primary Apr 26: JFK Wins PA Primary
Apr 27: Athens, WV, ‘Teacher College Grads’
Apr 27: Bluefield, WV, Bluefield St. College
Apr 27: Bluefield, Jackie on WHIS-TV
Apr 27: Princeton, WV, Maidenform plant
Apr 27: Charles Town, WV, Dem. Rally
Apr 27: Kimball, WV
Apr 27: Near Eckman, Eureka Hollow
Apr 27: Bramwell, WV
Apr 27: Montcalm, WV
Apr 27: Goodwill Hollow, WV
Apr 27: Hinton, WV, (Ted Kennedy sub)
Apr 27: Alderson, WV, Alderson H.S.
Apr 27: Ronceverte, WV, High School
Apr 27: Lewisburg, WV, High School
Apr 27: White Sulfur Springs, WV
Apr 27: Martinsburg, WV, WEPM Radio
Apr 27: Charles Town, WV, Ractrack
Apr 28: Charleston, WV
Apr 28: Princeton, WV, Courthouse Spch
Apr 29: Albany, IN, U.S. Steel Plant
Apr 29: Seymour, IN, Freeman Field
Apr 29: Kokomo, Howard Co. Ct. Hse
Apr 29: Richmond, IN, Earlham College
Apr 29: Richmond, Holy Family School
Apr 29: Richmond, Jeff-Jackson Dinner
Apr 30: Esdale, WV, JFK sub/sore throat
Apr 30: Park, WV, Kroger’s Store
Apr 30: Kanawha City, WV
Apr 30: South Charleston, WV
Apr 30: Dunbar, WV
Apr 30: Madison, WV, Co. Courthouse
Apr 30: Marmet, WV, Ted Sorenson sub
Apr 30: Chesapeake, WV,
Apr 30: St. Albans, WV, Democratic Rally
Apr 30: Charleston, ‘Industry for WV’
May 1: Parkersburg, WV, ‘WV Primary’
May 1: Weirton, WV, ‘Small Business’
May 3: Welch, WV, ‘Poverty in WV’ May 3: JFK Wins Indiana Primary
May 4: Charleston: JFK/HHH TV-Debate
May 4: Athens, WV, ‘Crisis in Education’
May 4: White Sulphur Springs, WV
May 4: Alderson, WV, ‘Indust. Devel.’
May 4: Ronceverte, WV, ‘Indust. Devel.’
May 4: Lewisburg, WV, ‘Youth Cons. Corps’
May 4: Charleston, ‘American Economy’
May 6: Huntington, WV, Economic Issues
May 7: Omaha, NE, ‘The Pres. Primary’
May 8: Elkins, WV, ‘Indust. Devel.’
May 8: Clarksburg, ‘Indust. Devel.’
May 8: Charleston, WV radio address
May 10: Wash, D.C., Dem Women’s Lunch May 10: JFK Wins WV Primary
May 11: Chestertown, MD, Wash. College
May 12: Rockville, MD, Dem. Women
May 12: NY, NY, Bronx Dem. Dinner
May 13: Hagerstown, MD, ‘Indust. Devel.’
May 13: Frederick MD, Hood College Spch.
May 13: Baltimore, ‘American Economy’
May 14: Elkton, MD, ‘Ed. of Am. Politician’
May 14: Easton, MD, ‘Federal Farm Policy’
May 14: College Pk, Univ of MD Rally
May 14: Salisbury, MD, ‘Older Citizens’
May 14: Cambridge, MD, ‘Water Pollution’
May 14: MD, Alben Barkley Club Banquet
May 15: Portland, OR, Kennedy Rally
May 15: Portland, Riverside Little League
May 15: The Dalles, OR, ‘Oregon Primary’
May 16: Portland, Lewis & Clark College
May 16: Astoria, OR, Democratic Lunch
May 17: Portland, Hillsboro High School
May 17: Eugene, OR, Weyerhaeuser Co. May 17: JFK Wins MD Primary
May 18: St. Helens, OR, Breakfast Spch.
May 18: Portland, OR, Benson H.S. Rally May 20: JFK Wins Oregon Primary
May 27: Spokane, WA, ‘Democratic Party’
May 29: Libertyville, IL, w/Adlai Stevenson
May 31: L.A., CA, Dinner for Gov. Brown
May 31: L.A., CA, Democratic Dinner
May 31: Scripps-Howard papers for LBJ
Jun 1: San Francisco, Gov. Brown Dinner
Jun 2: Chicago, IL, Textile Workers Union
Jun 2: Chicago, JFK: “National Decline”
Jun 3: Mackinac Island, MI
Jun 4: JFK/LBJ Split NM Dem Delegates
Jun 4: Minneapolis, MN, Jeff-Jack Dinner
Jun 7: Grand Rapids, MI, AFL-CIO Convnt.
Jun 7: Gov. Pat Brown Wins CA Primary
Jun 7: Sen. Humphrey, Wins SD Primary
Jun 10: E. Roosevelt Endorses Stevenson
Jun 11: St. Louis Post for Stevenson
Jun 16: JFK on TV’s Jack Paar Show
Jun 17: NY, NY, Nat’l Dem. Luncheon
Jun 18: Aberdeen, SD, ‘Ag Bill of Rights’
Jun 18: Durango, CO, Nat. Resource Cons.
Jun 19: Sioux Falls, SD, Am. Legion Convnt.
Jun 19: Fargo, ND, Fargo Airport Spch
Jun 19: Fargo, ND, Fairgrounds
Jun 19: Fargo, ND, Quentin Burdick Dinner
Jun 22: Dover, DE, Dover Air Force Base
Jun 22: Dover, DE, Dover Hotel
Jun 22: Camden, NJ, John Healey Dinner
Jun 22: Spring Lake., NJ, Dem Dinner
Jun 22: Camden, 1st Cong. Dist. Dinner
Jun 22: Speech before NY Liberal Party
Jun 22: Pittsburgh Press interview
Jun 23: NY, NY, Mtg. w/Martin L. King
Jun 24: Wash., African Diplomatic Corps
Jun 25: Hyannis, MA
Jun 26: Iowa Campaigning, ‘Farm Policy’
Jun 27: Helena, MT
Jun 27: Helena, Montana Legislature.
Jun 27: Helena, Marlow Theater
Jun 27: Helena, Dem State Convention
Jun 27: Helena, Placer Hotel/Dem Mtg
Jun 29: JFK: Mtg w Jackie Robinson.
Jun 30: NYPost: Stevenson-JFK ticket.
Jul 1: A. Clayton Powell for Symington
Jul 1: JFK Meets w/ Sen. Symington
Jul 1: JFK Reply to Jackie Robinson
Jul 2: Harry Truman: “JFK Too Young”
Jul 4: CBS TV: JFK Rebuts Truman
Jul 4: JFK’s Health Raised
Jul 4: Newsweek: Who Can Stop JFK?
Jul 5: LBJ Announces Candidacy
Jul 6: JFK to Harlem, NY/J.R. Jones
Jul 8: NY, JFK Predicts DNC Win
Democratic National Convention
Los Angeles, California
Jul 9: JFK Arrives at DNC
Jul 10: JFK: Meet the Press
Jul 10: JFK Speech at NAACP
Jul 10: Illinois – 59 ½ votes to JFK
Jul 10: Gov. Brown Endorses JFK
Jul 10: E. Roosevelt Arrives at DNC
Jul 10: Dem Nat’l Committee Dinner
Jul 10: Celebrity Gala: Sinatra, et. al.,
Jul 11: DNC Formally Opens
Jul 11: Sammy Davis Booed at DNC
Jul 11: Gov. Lawrence: PA For JFK
Jul 12: JFK/LBJ Showdown Debate
Jul 12: Stevenson Floor Demonstration Jul 13: JFK Nominated/1st Ballot
Jul 14: JFK Picks LBJ For V.P. Slot
Jul 15: JFK Formally Nominated
Jul 16: L.A. Coliseum: ‘New Frontier’
Jul 16: L.A., JFK Press Conference
Jul 16: Dem Nat’l Convention Close
Jul 16: Private Dinner, Romanoff’s
Jul 17: Depart for Boston/Hyannis, MA
Jul-Aug 1960 – Post DNC
Jul 19: Hyannis, Campaign Planning
Jul 19: Look, ‘Kennedys: Pol Machine’
Jul 20: Hyannis, 3 Top Aides Named
Jul 23: Hyannis: Allen Dulles Briefs JFK
Jul 25-28:Republican Nat’l Convention
Jul 26: JFK Praise for Gov. Rockefeller
Jul 28: JFK Accepts TV Debate Prop.
Jul 28: Hyannis: JFK Press Conference
Jul 29: Hyannis: JFK/Stevenson Confer
Jul 29: Hyannis: JFK/LBJ Confer
Jul 29: JFK Accepts 2 More TV Debates
Jul 30: JFK-LBJ Joint Press Conference
Aug 1: Hyannis: Dems on Farm Policy
Aug 2: Hyannis: Civil Rights & Campaign
Aug 4: Gov Meyner Heads NJ Campaign
Aug 5: NY, NY, Overseas Press Club
Aug 6: Hyannis, MA, Lithuanian Leaders
Aug 6: Hyannis, Policy-American Leaders
Aug 6: Hyannis, Chinese-Americans
Aug 6: Hyannis, Immigration Statement
Aug 8: U.S. Senate Reconvenes
Aug 8: Wash., DC, ‘Civil Rights’
Aug 9: Wash., ‘Republicans & Civil Rights’
Aug 10: Truman to Campaign for JFK-LBJ
Aug 10: U.S. Senate, ‘Minimum Wage Bill’
Aug 11: 3 Rail Unions Back JFK-LBJ
Aug 13: Wash., ‘Medical Care of Aged’
Aug 14: Hyde Park, NY w/ E. Roosevelt
Aug 14: Hyde Pk, FDR Home/S.S.Act 25th
Aug 17: Nat’l Assn. County Officials (tel)
Aug 17: U.S. Senate, ‘Airlift Africa’
Aug 18: Wash., ‘Minimum Wage Bill’
Aug 19: ‘Farmers for Kennedy & Johnson’
Aug 20: Omaha, NE, Offutt Air Force Base
Aug 20: Independence, Missouri
Aug 20: Missouri Mtg. w/Harry Truman
Aug 20: Independence, MO, Press Conf.
Aug 20-21: Des Moines, IA, Farm Conf.
Aug 21: Des Moines, LBJ & JFK
Aug 21: Des Moines, LBJ & JFK Press
Aug 21: Des Moines, JFK Farm Spch
Aug 21: “Farmers for JFK-LBJ” Press
Aug 22: Life Magazine Article by JFK
Aug 24: Alexandria, VA, Dem. Rally
Aug 26: NY, NY, Zionists of America
Aug 26: Detroit, MI, VFW Convention
Aug 26: Miami, AMVET Cnvnt. (tel)
Aug 26: AFL-CIO Endorses Kennedy
Aug 30: NY State AFL-CIO (tel)
Aug 30: Wash., DC, Press Conf.
Aug 31: Nat’l Bar Assn., ‘Negro Judges’
Sept 2: Portland, ME, Press Conference
Sept 2: Manchester, NH, Airport Rally
Sept 2: Presque Isle, ME, Airport Rally
Sept 2: Bangor, ME, ‘1960 Election’
Sept 2: Portland, ME, ‘1960 Election’
Sept 3: San Francisco, A-port / Press
Sept 3: Anchorage, AK, A-port / Press
Sept 3: Palmer, Alaska, State Fair
Sept 3: Anchorage, TV/Radio Spot
Sept 4: Detroit, MI, Airport Reception.
Sept 5: Detroit, Labor Day kick-off
Sept 5: Detroit, State Fair/Labor
Sept 5: Pontiac, MI, Labor Day picnic
Sept 5: Flint, MI, Atwood Stadium
Sept 5: Muskegon, MI, Lab. Day Picnic
Sept 5: Muskegon, Doo Drop Inn
Sept 6: Alaska Newspapers by Phone
Sept 6: Pocatello, Idaho, Press Interview
Sept 6: Pocatello, ‘Mining Legislation’
Sept 6: Pocatello, Radio Interview
Sept 6: Spokane, WA, Parade & Speech
Sept 6: Seattle, WA, Public Rally
Sept 6: Seattle, ‘National Defense’
Sept 7: Seattle, WA, Press Conference
Sept 7: Eugene, OR, Public Rally
Sept 7: Eugene, ‘American Prestige’
Sept 7: Salem, OR, Public Rally
Sept 7: Portland, OR, TV Appearance
Sept 7: Portland, Multnomah Hotel
Sept 7: N. V. Peale: Catholic President
California Whistlestop Tour
September 8-9, 1960
Sept 8: Redding, CA
Sept 8: Red Bluff, CA
Sept 8: Chico, CA
Sept 8: Marysville, CA
Sept 8: Sacramento, CA
Sept 8: Davis, CA
Sept 8: Fairfield, CA
Sept 8: Martinez, CA
Sept 8: Richmond, CA
Sept 8: Oakland, CA,
Sept 9: Stockton, CA
Sept 9: Modesto, CA
Sept 9: Turlock, CA
Sept 9: Merced, CA
Sept 9: Madera, CA
Sept 9: Fresno, CA
Sept 9: Tulare, CA
Sept 9: Bakersfield, CA
September 1960 (cont’d)
Sept 9: Burbank, CA, A-port Press
Sept 9: Burbank, Shopping Centery
Sept 9: L.A., Shrine Aud/‘Civil Rights’
Sept 11: San Diego, Linbergh Field
Sept 11: San Diego, Grant Hotel
Sept 11: San Diego, ‘Defense’
Sept 11: El Paso, TX, Arrival
Sept 12: El Paso, ‘Democratic Party’
Sept 12: Lubbock, TX, Airport speech
Sept 12: San Antonio, TX, Motorcade
Sept 12: San Antonio, Alamo Speech
Sept 12: Houston, Coliseum Speech
Sept 12: Houston Ministers Speech
Sept 12: Austin, TX, Arrival
Sept 13: Austin, Spch on Capitol Steps
Sept 13: Ft. Worth, TX, Arrival
Sept 13: Arlington, TX, Motorcade
Sept 13: Dallas, Memorial Aud. Speech
Sept 13: Dallas, Chance Vought Aircraft
Sept 13: Texarkana, TX, Courthouse Square
Sept 13: NY Liberal Party for JFK
Sept 14: St. Louis, I. A.M. Convention
Sept 14: NYC, Dem. Women’s Luncheon
Sept 14: NYC, Fundraising
Sept 14: NYC, Kennedy Workers Rally
Sept 14: NYC, Senior Citizens Rally
Sept 14: NYC, Liberal Party Nomination
Sept 15: Jersey City, NJ, Dem Party Spch
Sept 15: Bergen, NJ, Bergen Mall Rally
Sept 15: Paterson, NJ, City Hall Rally
Sept 15: Newark, NJ, City Hall Rally
Sept 15: Elizabeth, NJ, City Hall Rally
Sept 15: N. Brunswick, Hall of Records
Sept 15: Trenton, NJ, State Office Bldg.
Sept 15: Clifton, NJ, Dem Party Speech
Sept 15: Mercer, PA, Arrival
Sept 15: Harrisburg, PA, Band Greeting
Sept 15: Harrisburg, PA, Market Sq. Spch
Sept 15: Harrisburg, Zembo Mosque
Sept 15: Harrisburg, PA, Statewide TV
Sept 16: Lebanon, PA, ‘Republican Party’
Sept 16: Reading, PA, ‘Republican Party’
Sept 16: Lancaster, PA, Penn Square Spch
Sept 16: Columbia, PA, ‘Republican Party’
Sept 16: York, PA, Lincoln Woods Inn
Sept 16: York, PA, Fairgrounds Speech
Sept 16: Towson, MD, ‘Democratic Party’
Sept 16: Pikesville, MD, ‘Khrushchev Visit’
Sept 16: Washington, DC, Arrival/Home
Sept 17: Greenville, NC, Tobacco Auction
Sept 17: Greenville, E. Carolina Stadium
Sept 17: Greensboro, NC, Airport speech
Sept 17: Ashville, NC, via Phone Conf.
Sept 17: Charlotte, NC, Coliseum Speech
Sept 17: Raleigh, NC, Gov’s Mansion
Sept 17: Raleigh, Rally, Speech, Q&A
Sept 17: Washington, DC, Arrival/Home
Sept 18: Americans for Dem Action for JFK
Sept 19: Atlantic City, NJ, Chem Workers
Sept 19: Atlantic City, NJ, Steelworkers
Sept 19: Charleston, WV, Dan Boone House
Sept 19: Charleston, TV talk & Press Conf
Sept 19: CBS-TV: Cronkite/JFK Interview
Sept 19: CIA’s Allen Dulles Briefs JFK
Sept 19: Washington, DC, Arrival/Home
Sept 20: Wash., DC, Sheraton Hotel Spch
Sept 20: Person to Person TV w/Jackie
Sept 21: Tri Cities Airport, VA/TN, Rally
Sept 21: Knoxville, TN, Airport Rally
Sept 21: Nashville, TN, War Memorial Spch.
Sept 21: Nashville, State Fair, ‘Farm Policy’
Sept 21: Memphis, TN, TV Speech
Sept 21: Memphis, Riverside Drive Rally
Sept 21: Sioux City, IA, Municipal Aud. Spch
Sept 22: Sioux City, Fundraising Breakfast
Sept 22: Fort Dodge, IA, Parade
Sept 22: Fort Dodge, IA, Airport Speech
Sept 22: Sioux Falls, SD, Airport Speech
Sept 22: Sioux Falls, Nat’l Plowing Contest
Sept 22: Mitchell, SD, ‘Federal Farm Policy’
Sept 22: Fargo, ND, Airport Rally/Reception
Sept 22: Billings, MT, Shrine Auditorium
Sept 22: Cheyenne, WY, ‘Nat. Resources’
Sept 23: Cheyenne, Brkfst Spch, Frontier Pk
Sept 23: Cheyenne, Airport Rally
Sept 23: Denver, CO, Civic Center Rally
Sept 23: Denver, CO, Hilton Hotel Spch.
Sept 23: Salt Lake City, Mormon Tabernacle
Sept 23: Salt Lake City, Tabernacle TV Show
Sept 23: Salt Lake City, Hotel Utah Spch
Sept 24: Chicago, Arrival-1st TV debate
Sept 25: Cleveland, OH, Hotel Hollenden
Sept 26: Cleveland, Euclid Beach Pk.
Sept 26: Chicago, IL, Carpenters Union.
Sept 26: 1st Kennedy-Nixon TV Debate
Sept 27: Painesville, OH, ‘Dem. Party’
Sept 27: Lorain, OH, Stadium Rally
Sept 27: Mansfield, OH, ‘Foreign Policy’
Sept 27: Akron, OH, Armory Spch & Rally
Sept 27: Canton, OH, Municipal Aud.
Sept 27: Erie, PA, Airport Rally
Sept 28: Erie, Breakfast Speech
Sept 28: Erie, Lawrence Hotel Rally
Sept 28: Niagra Falls, Bell Aircraft Co.
Sept 28: Niagra Falls, Treadway Inn Spch.
Sept 28: Lockport, NY, ‘Pres. Election’
Sept 29: N. Tonawanda, ‘Pres. Election’
Sept 28: Rochester, NY, Business Leaders
Sept 28: Rochester, War Memorial Rally
Sept 28: Buffalo, NY, Senior Citizens Mtg
Sept 28: Buffalo, Memorial Aud. Speech
Sept 29: Albany, NY, State Capitol Rally
Sept 29: Troy, NY, Rally, ‘Pres. Election’
Sept 29: Schenectady, NY, Rally
Sept 29: Amsterdam, NY, ‘Am. Economy’
Sept 29: Little Falls, NY, Lunch Rally
Sept 29: Ilion, NY
Sept 29: Utica, NY, Rally
Sept 29: Rome, NY, Rally
Sept 29: Oneida, NY, Rally
Sept 29: Syracuse, NY, ‘Foreign Policy’
Sept 29: Syracuse, NY, TV Address
Sept 29: Charles Collingwood, CBS-TV
Sept 30: Hyannis, Huntley-Brinkley/NBC
Oct 1: Chicago, City Hall, ‘Eastern Europe’
Oct 1: Chicago, American Polish Congress
Oct 1: Chicago, Lake Meadow Shop. Cntr
Oct 1: Minneapolis, MN, TV Address
Oct 1: Minneapolis, Bean Feed
Oct 1: Minneapolis, Fundraising Spch
Oct 2: St. Paul, MN, Airport Rally
Oct 2: St. Paul, St. Paul Hotel Spch
Oct 2: St. Paul, GTA Convention
Oct 2: Duluth, MN, Univ of MN
Oct 2: Hibbing, MN, Mem. Arena Spch.
Oct 2: St. Louis, Arrival, Chase Hotel
Oct 3: Alton, IL, ‘Democratic Party’
Oct 3: Granite City, IL, ‘Pres. Election’
Oct 3: E. St. Louis, 15th & Broadway
Oct 3: E. St. Louis, National Stockyards
Oct 3: Belleville, IL, Augustine’s
Oct 3: Belleville, ‘1960 Pres. Election’
Oct 3: Carbondale, IL, Stadium Speech
Oct 3: Marion, IL, Court House
Oct 3: Marion, Veterans’s Hospital
Oct 3: Marion Airport, ‘Dem Party’
Oct 3: Harrisburg, IL, ‘Farm Policy’
Oct 3: Venice, IL, ‘Republican Party’
Oct 3: Springfield, IL, Armory Spch.
Oct 3: Chicago. IL
Oct 4: Evansville, IN, Courthouse Rally
Oct 4: Indianapolis, IN, WTTV-TV
Oct 4: Indianapolis, Auditorium Spch
Oct 5: Pendleton, IN, ‘Am. Economy’
Oct 5: Anderson, IN, Courthouse Rally
Oct 5: Muncie, IN, Courthouse Rally
Oct 5: Muncie, Muncie Gear Works
Oct 5: Terre Haute, IN, Courthouse Rally
Oct 5: Louisville, KY, Jefferson Square
Oct 5: Louisville, Fairgrounds
Oct 5: Louisville, KY, TV Address
Oct 6: Cincinnati, OH, Gov’t Square
Oct 6: Cincinnati, Democratic Dinner
Oct 6: Washington, DC, Arrival Home
Oct 7: DC, Howard Univ, ‘Civil Rights’
Oct 7: Kennedy-Nixon, 2nd TV Debate
Oct 8: Lexington, KY, University of KY
Oct 8: Bowling Green, KY, Courthouse
Oct 8: Paducah, KY, Rally
Oct 8: Washington, DC, Arrival Home
Oct 9: Youngstown, OH, Rally
Oct 9: Girard, OH, ‘Democratic Party’
Oct 9: Warren, OH, Courthouse Rally
Oct 9: Salem, OH, Rally
Oct 9: Louisville, KY, ‘Democratic Party’
Oct 10: Columbus, GA, Airport Rally
Oct 10: Warm Springs, Little White Hse
Oct 10: La Grange, GA, Airport
Oct 10: Columbia, SC, State House Spch
Oct 10: Pittsburgh, PA, Gateway Center
Oct 10: Pittsburgh, Urban Affairs Conf.
Oct 10: Pittsburgh, Syria Mosque
Oct 10: NYC, Late night arrival
Oct 12: NYC, Breakfast w/Mrs Roosevelt
Oct 12: NYC, Columbus Day Parade
Oct 12: NYC, Associated Biz Pubs Conf.
Oct 12: NYC, Democratic Committees
Oct 12: NYC, Constitutional Rights Conf.
Oct 12: Mineola, NY, Long Island Fair
Oct 12: NYC, Hotel Theresa Rally
Oct 12: E. Harlem, Puerto Rican Rally
Oct 12: NYC, Nat’l Council of Women
Oct 13: Kennedy-Nixon, 3rd TV Debate
Oct 13: Los Angeles Times for Nixon
Oct 14: Ann Arbor, U. of Mich /early a.m.
Oct 14: Whistle stop /Southern Mich??
Oct 14: Jackson, MI, ‘Democratic Party’
Oct 14: Albion, MI, Republican critique
Oct 14: Marshall, MI, ‘Democratic Party’
Oct 14: Battle Creek, MI
Oct 14: Kalamazoo, MI, ‘Foreign Policy’
Oct 14: Grand Rapids, MI, Rally
Oct 14: E. Lansing, Mich. State University
Oct 14: Owasso, MI, ‘American Economy’
Oct 14: Lansing, MI, Capitol Steps Spch.
Oct 14: Bay County, MI
Oct 14: Saginaw, MI, ‘Democratic Party’
Oct 14: Denver, CO, Adult Ed Assoc.
Oct 15: Sharon, PA, Rally
Oct 15: New Castle, PA, Rally
Oct 15: Beaver Falls, PA, Rally
Oct 15: Butler, PA, ‘American Economy’
Oct 15: Kittanning, PA, Rally
Oct 15: Indiana, PA, Rally
Oct 15: Johnstown, PA, Rally
Oct 15: Washington, DC, Arrive Home
Oct 16: Levittown, NJ, Shopping Cntr Rally
Oct 16: Wilmington, DE, Airport Rally
Oct 16: Wash., DC, Meet The Press TV
Oct 16: Silver Spring, MD, Blair H.S.
Oct 17: Dayton, OH, Courthouse Rally
Oct 17: Dayton, Biltmore Hotel Speech
Oct 17: Fairborn, OH, Rally
Oct 17: Springfield, OH, Wittenberg College
Oct 17: London, OH, ‘Democratic Party’
Oct 17: Columbus, OH, Statehouse Rally
Oct 18: N. Miami Bch, FL, 163rd St. Rally
Oct 18: Miami, Am. Legion Convention/TV
Oct 18: Tampa, FL, Latin America speech
Oct 18: Jacksonville, FL. Hemming Park
Oct 18: Esquire’s N. Mailer JFK Story
Oct 19: NY City Hall steps, JFK speech
Oct 19: Motorcade through NY City
Oct 19: NYC: Rockefeller Plaza Rally
Oct 19: NYC: Union Hall Speech
Oct 19: Yonkers, NY, ‘Democratic Party’
Oct 19: NYC, Alfred E. Smith Dinner
Oct 20: Brooklyn, Fulton & Duffield Sts.
Oct 20: Brooklyn, Fulton & Nostrand Sts.
Oct 20: Brooklyn, Foster & Nostrand Sts.
Oct 20: Brooklyn, NY, Sears Roebuck
Oct 20: Brooklyn, Utica & Eastern
Oct 20: Brooklyn, Macy’s Dept Store
Oct 20: NYC, Pat Clancy Dinner, Astor
Oct 20: NYC: Madison Sq. Garden Spch
Oct 21: Kennedy-Nixon, 4th TV Debate
Oct 22: St. Louis, MO, Democratic Brkfst
Oct 22: Crestwood, MO, ‘1960 Election’
Oct 22: St. Louis, Northland Shop Cntr
Oct 22: Jennings, MO, ‘Dem. Party’
Oct 22: Joplin, MO, Airport Rally
Oct 22: Wichita, KS, Lawrence Stadium
Oct 22: K.C., MO, Richards-Gebaur AFB
Oct 22: Grandview, MO, Truman Shop Cntr
Oct 22: Kansas City, MO, Televised Spch
Oct 22: Kansas City, KS, Shawnee H.S.
Oct 22: Prairie Vlg., KS, Johnson Co. Dems
Oct 22: Green Bay, WI, Arrival, p.m.
Oct 23: Green Bay, Brown County Arena
Oct 23: La Crosse, WI, Airport Rally
Oct 23: Madison, WI, Field House Rally
Oct 23: Milwaukee, WI, Parade
Oct 23: Milwaukee, Arena Speech, TV
Oct 24: Champaign, IL, Willard Airport
Oct 24: Champaign-Urbana, Univ. of IL
Oct 24: Moline, IL, New Field House
Oct 24: Peoria, IL, Downtown Rally
Oct 24: Peoria, Live TV Program
Oct 24: E. Peoria, Caterpillar Plant
Oct 24: Rock Island, IL, ‘Nixon’s Record’
Oct 24: Rockford, IL, Coronado Theater
Oct 25: Chicago, O’Hare Inn
Oct 25: Libertyville, IL
Oct 25: Lake Zurich, IL
Oct 25: Barrington, IL, Barrington School
Oct 25: Carpentersville, IL,
Oct 25: Dundee, IL, Shopping Cntr Rally
Oct 25: Elgin, IL, Parade & Rally
Oct 25: Elgin, IL, Rally, Elgin Watch Co.
Oct 25: St. Charles, IL, Baker Park
Oct 25: Geneva, IL, Geneva Courthouse
Oct 25: Batavia, IL, ‘1960 Election’
Oct 25: Mooseheart, IL, Boys’ Home
Oct 25: Northgate, IL, Shopping Center
Oct 25: Aurora, IL, City Hall Rally
Oct 25: Elmhurst, IL, ‘Prestige Abroad’
Oct 25: Plainfield, IL
Oct 25: Hillcrest, IL, Shopping Center
Oct 25: Joliet, IL, Rally
Oct 25: York Township, IL, High School
Oct 26: Selfridge AFB, Michigan
Oct 26: Mt. Clemens, MI, Speech
Oct 26: Warren, MI, Republican. Critique
Oct 26: Rosedale, MI, ‘Education’
Oct 26: Hamtramck, MI
Oct 26: Macomb Co., MI. Shopping Cntr
Oct 26: Detroit, MI, Dem Party Workers
Oct 26: Detroit, Michigan State Fair
Oct 26: Detroit, Keyworth Stadium Speech
Oct 26: Detroit, Coliseum Speech (TV)
Oct 26: Newark, NJ, Governor’s Ball
Oct 26: Phone call to Coretta Scott King
Oct 27: NYC, ILGWU Speech (TV)
Oct 27: NYC, Liberal Party Rally
Oct 27: NYC, Stuyvesant Town Rally
Oct 27: NYC, Union Sq / Workers Rally
Oct 27: NYC, New York University
Oct 27: Brooklyn, NY, Motorcade
Oct 27: Brooklyn, Eastern Pkwy Arena
Oct 27: Queens, Sunnyside Gardens
Oct 27: Staten Island, NY
Oct 27: Bethlehem, PA, Arrival, p.m.
Oct 28: Bethlehem, Democratic Breakfast
Oct 28: Bethlehem, Moravian College
Oct 28: Allentown, PA, Center Sq Rally
Oct 28: Pottsville, PA, Rally
Oct 28: Hazleton, PA, Rally
Oct 28: Wilkes-Barre, PA, Rally
Oct 28: Scranton, PA, ‘Am. Economy’
Oct 28: Phila., PA, Aronomink CClub
Oct 29: Phila., PA, Lawrence Park
Oct 29: Chester, PA, Rally
Oct 29: Upper Darby, PA, Rally
Oct 29: Montgomery, PA, Lord & Taylor
Oct 29: Roosevelt Field, PA, Rally
Oct 29: Willow Grove, PA Snellenburg’s
Oct 29: Cheltenham, PA, Shopping Cntr
Oct 29: Philadelphia, PA, WFIL-TV
Oct 29: Valley Forge, PA, Rally
Oct 29: Valley Forge, Fundraising Din.
Oct 29: JFK cover, Saturday Eve. Post
Oct 30: Chicago Tribune endorses Nixon
Oct 30: Levittown, PA, Shopping Cntr
Oct 30: Phila., PA, Face The Nation TV
Oct 31: Phila., 6 Citizen Groups
Oct 31: Phila., Penn Fruit Shop Cntr
Oct 31: Phila., Bonds for Israel Dinner
Oct 31: Phila., Raymond Rosen Apts.
Oct 31: Phila., Rayburn Plaza Rally
Oct 31: Phila., TV studio
Oct 31: Phila., Temple University
Oct 31: Phila., Fundraising Dinner
Nov 1: Los Angeles, Univ of So Cal
Nov 1: L.A., Elks Auditorium
Nov 1: L.A., Negro Ministers Mtg
Nov 1: L.A., Garment Workers Rally
Nov 1: Long Beach, Douglas Aircraft
Nov 1: Redondo Bch, South Bay Cntr
Nov 1: East L.A. State College Rally
Nov 2: L. A., Dem Women Breakfast
Nov 2: San Diego, City Plaza Rally
Nov 2: San Diego, Linbergh Field
Nov 2: San Jose, Downtown Rally
Nov 2: Oakland, Defremery Park
Nov 2: San Francisco, Fundraising
Nov 2: San Francisco, Cow Palace/TV
Nov 2: Henry Fonda w/Jackie K./ TV
Nov 3: Phoenix, AZ, Arrival, a.m.
Nov 3: Phoenix, Party Workers Brkfst
Nov 3: Phoenix, Rally/Spch/Telecast
Nov 3: Albuquerque, NM, Airport
Nov 3: Albuquerque, Univ. Rally
Nov 3: Amarillo, TX, w/LBJ
Nov 3: Wichita Falls, Airport Rally
Nov 3: Oklahoma City, Rally /TV
Nov 3: Okla. City, Reding Shop Cntr
Nov 4: Wash., DC, Arrive, early a.m.
Nov 4: Roanoke, VA, Airport Rally
Nov 4: Norfolk, VA, Campaign Rally
Nov 4: Toledo, OH, Courthouse Rally
Nov 4: Chicago, Buffet w Mayor Daley
Nov 4: Chicago /Torchlight /1.5 million
Nov 4: Chicago Stadium / NBC-TV
Nov 5: NYC, Fundraising Breakfast
Nov 5: NYC, Bronx, Grand Concourse
Nov 5: NYC, Bronx Women/Lunch
Nov 5: NYC, Queens Women/Lunch
Nov 5: NYC, Queens, Blvd Restaurant
Nov 5: NYC, Columbus Circle Spch
Nov 5: Nassau Co, NY, Sunrise Ave.
Nov 5: Flushing, NY, Elchester Apts.
Nov 5: NYC, 90th Street Rally
Nov 5: NYC, State Dems Meeting
Nov 5: NYC, Coliseum (outside)
Nov 5: NY Coliseum, ‘Presidency’
Nov 5: Waterbury, CT, Arrival, p.m.
Nov 6: Waterbury, Street Rally
Nov 6: New Haven, CT. Street Rally
Nov 6: Bridgeport, Railroad Plaza
Nov 6: Lake Ronkonkoma, CT
Nov 6: Newark, NJ, Mosque Theater
Nov 6: Teterboro, Teaneck Armory
Nov 6: Jersey City, NJ, Journal Sq.
Nov 6: Lewiston, Maine
Nov 6: Nixon TV Program
Nov 6: NYC, JFK TV Program
Nov 6: Gallup: 49% JFK, 48% Nixon
Nov 7: Roper: 49% Nixon, 47% JFK
Nov 7: Time cvr, ‘Candidate Kennedy’
Nov 7: Providence, RI, Airport
Nov 7: Providence, City Hall
Nov 7: Springfield, MA, city Hall
Nov 7: Hartford, CT, ‘Am. Economy’
Nov 7: Burlington, VT
Nov 7: Manchester, NH, Park Rally
Nov 7: Nixon Celeb TV Telethon
Nov 7: Manchester, JFK TV Program
Nov 7: T. Dewey on TV, Rebuts JFK
Nov 7: Boston, MA, Boston Garden
Nov 7: Boston, Nat’l TV Address
Nov 8: Election Day Nov 9: JFK Elected President
Nov 9: Hyannis, Press Conference
Nov 9: Boston, ‘City Upon a Hill’
Post Election, Cabinet, etc.
Nov 10: Palm Beach, FL, R&R
Nov 12: L. Hodges: Commerce Sec
Nov 14: JFK & Nixon Meet/FL
Nov 16: Absentee Ballot Count
Nov 16: Nixon Wins California
Nov 18: A. Dulles Briefs JFK
Nov 21: Life cover, ‘Kennedys’
Nov 25: John F. Kennedy, Jr Born
Dec 1: Sen Ribbicoff: HEW Sec.
Dec 7: Rep Udall: Interior Sec.
Dec 12: Dean Rusk: Sec of State
Dec 13: R. McNamara, Defense Sec.
Dec 15: Final Election Vote Count
Dec 15: O. Freeman: Sec of Ag
Dec 15: A. Goldberg: Labor Sec.
Dec 16: RFK: Attorney General
Dec 16: D. Dillon, Treasury Sec.
Dec 17: J.E. Day, Postmaster Gen.
Dec 19: Electoral College Vote
Dec 19: Life: JFK, Jr Christening
Dec 25: Kennedys to Palm Beach
Jan 2: JFK to Orange Bowl
Jan 19: Wash., DC, Snow
Jan 19: Pre-Inaugural Gala Jan 20: JFK Inauguration
Jan 20: JFK: “Ask Not…”
Jan 20: 80 Million TV Viewers
Jan 21: JFK Meets w/Cabinet
Note: This listing provides a rough overview of JFK’s 1960 travel itinerary, speeches, and other activities at the listed locations. Some dates and events are “best approximations” given uncertain and/or conflicting sourcing information. Sources for many of these campaign stops are listed below along with additional photos. More detailed information on JFK’s activities at many of these locations is available at the JFK Presidential Library in Boston.
Article Citation: Jack Doyle, “JFK’s 1960 Campaign: Primaries & General
Election,” PopHistoryDig.com, July 19, 2014.
Sources, Links & Additional Information
A Norman Rockwell portrait of JFK appeared on the cover of the ‘Saturday Evening Post’ of Oct 29, 1960 – the Post then being one of the nation’s largest circulation magazines, and Rockwell, one of America’s most famous illustrators and portrait artists. He also did Nixon's.
JFK greeting Ohio Democratic Gov. Mike DiSalle, who after some Kennedy-team pressure, announced in Jan-uary 1960 that Ohio’s delegates would be JFK’s at DNC.
Jan 3, 1960: JFK on ‘Meet the Press’ TV show a day after he announced his candidacy. At left is Ned Brooks, the show’s moderator. AP photo.
Jan 21, 1960: JFK at a press conference in Milwaukee, WI, where he announced he would run in the state’s April 5th, 1960 primary against Sen. Hubert Humphrey. Kennedy aide, Pierre Salinger, is seen in the back-ground, far right, reading from paper. Photo, UPI.
January 24, 1960: JFK & Jackie, campaigning in Nashua, N.H., sit at local lunch counter and chat with townsfolk.
March 28, 1960: A key early test for JFK came in the Wisconsin primary of April 5th, 1960, as Newsweek asked: “Who’ll Tumble?”– Humphrey or Kennedy?”
JFK addressing a breakfast or luncheon gathering in Wisconsin prior to that state’s April 5th, 1960 primary.
April 5th, 1960: Sen. Hubert Humphrey and JFK enjoy a moment of friendly banter during tabulation of the West Virginia primary election returns, which JFK would win.
April 25, 1960: JFK campaigns in rural Logan County, West Virginia looking for support for the May 10th primary, precariously perched on a high-chair to deliver his speech. Photo, Hank Walker.
April 1960: JFK shakes hands with a one-arm coal miner while campaigning in Mullens, WV. Photo/Hank Walker.
May 4th, 1960: During the West Virginia primary, JFK and Sen. Humphrey had a key televised debate over Channel 8, WCHS-TV, in Charleston, WV.
June 27, 1960: JFK addressed the Montana State Democratic Convention in Helena, and attended other events at the Marlow Theater and Civic Center. Ted Kennedy and Sargent Shriver were with JFK on this visit.
July 10th: JFK chats with sister Pat during fundraising dinner at the Beverly Hilton Hotel, with VIP guests such as Frank Sinatra (rt). Photo, L.A. Mirror-News.
Part of a 3-panel Kennedy-Johnson flyer on “human rights for every American” – to work, education, just compensation, live where he chooses, “security in sickness;” to vote, speak, read and worship as he pleases, and to be free from the terror of war – taken from a July 1960 JFK speech before the NAACP in L.A.
July 10, 1960: Hollywood star Judy Garland, center, flanked by Adlai Stevenson and JFK during fundraising event at the Beverly Hilton Hotel in L.A. during the DNC.
July 15: At the close of the DNC, JFK delivers his “New Frontier” speech at the L.A. Coliseum to an audience of 80,000. VIPs Stevenson, Humphrey and Symington are behind him as some “Kennedy Girls” look on as well.
July 19, 1960: Look magazine's story: "The Kennedys: A Family Political Machine."
Aug 20th, Omaha, NE: JFK at Offutt AFB for briefing on SAC operations with Gen. Thomas S. Power (r), Strategic Air Command chief, and Gen. Curtis LeMay, Air Force vice chief of staff. AP photo.
Sept 6, 1960: JFK’s car in Spokane, WA is surrounded by crowds in downtown area as he campaigns with Gov. Albert D. Rosellini (L) and Sen. Henry “Scoop” Jackson (waving), then DNC chairman.
Sept 12, 1960: In an attempt to quell questions about his Catholic religion and a Catholic becoming president, JFK gave an eloquent and convincing speech to the Ministers' Association of Greater Houston, addressing some 600 clergy and guests, taking their questions, and generally defusing a major issue that had dogged his campaign.
Oct 14, 1960: Just before 2:00 a.m., thousands of students at the Univ. of Michigan greet JFK on the steps of the Michigan Union to hear his call for a “Peace Corps.”
Oct 17, 1960: JFK beset by a group of female admirers at the Dayton, OH airport – Life magazine would call JFK’s rock-star treatment “the adoration phenomenon.”
Oct 24, 1960: JFK spoke before some 10,000 college students and faculty who packed the University of Illinois Quad at Urbana to hear him speak on foreign policy. It was the first political speech allowed on university property since the 1870s.
Spring 1960: During the primaries, and traveling aboard ‘The Caroline,” photographer Jacques Lowe caught Kennedy with one of his “calming props” – here holding a cigar. JFK used cigars, lit and unlit, during conversation and while working on strategy, but mostly in private. He preferred the narrower size, including one favorite, Cuba's Petit Upmann. Click for video vignette.
Nov 1960: A few days before the election, in early November, Kennedy’s campaign made a blitz of New England, bringing out tens of thousands. Here the Bridgeport, CT ‘Sunday Herald’ notes an expected turnout.
Nov 4: JFK campaigning at airport rally at Woodrum Field, Roanoke, VA, four days before the election.
Jan 20, 1961: Famous photo taken by AP’s Henry Burroughs of Jackie touching her husband’s face on Inauguration Day in the Capitol, a private moment in which she was expressing how proud she was; a moment she would later describe as “so much more emotional than any kiss because his eyes really did fill with tears.”
John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, JFKlibrary.org, Boston, MA.
“Statement of Senator John F. Kennedy Announcing Candidacy for President of the United States, January 2, 1960,” Archives .gov.
Kenneth P. O’Donnell and David F. Powers with Joe McCarthy, Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye, Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1970.
Jacques Lowe, Portrait: The Emergence of John F. Kennedy, New York: Bramhall House/ McGraw-Hill, 1961.
The New York Times and Jacques Lowe, The Kennedy Years, New York: Viking Press, 1964.
Chalmers M. Roberts, “Gov. DiSalle Gives Ohio To Kennedy; Will Head State’s Delegation Pledged To Bay Stater,” Washington Post/Times Herald, January 6, 1960, p. A-1.
“January 14, 1960 – Senator John F. Kennedy at National Press Club, Washington, D.C.,” YouTube.com (excerpts).
Chalmers M. Roberts, “Kennedy Displays His Humor and Seriousness,” Washington Post/Times Herald, January 15, 1960, p. A-9.
John D. Morris, “Kennedy Pledges Firm Presidency; Attacks Eisenhower Concept of the Office… Pledges a ‘Strong’ Presidency if Elected,” New York Times, January 15, 1960.
Marquis Childs, “Kennedy’s Engine Picking Up Steam,” Washington Post/Times Herald, January 15, 1960, p. A-12.
Russell Baker, “Nixon Criticizes Kennedy’s Views About Presidency; Says Senator Is Confusing ‘Table Pounding’ With Strong Leadership Eisenhower Defended He Gets Results by Using Persuasion, Vice President Asserts…,” New York Times, January 17, 1960, p. 1.
Russell Baker, “Kennedy Will Vie With Humphrey in Wisconsin Test; His Formal Entry Expected Tomorrow in Milwaukee — Fight Could Be Decisive,” New York Times, January 20, 1960, p. 1.
Austin O. Wehrwein, “Wisconsin’s Primary Could Narrow Field; Loss There Might Put Humphrey Or Kennedy Out of the Race,” New York Times, January 24, 1960, p. E-4.
“Kennedy Hits Johnson for Avoiding Primaries; Senator in New Mexico Bid for Support Raps Candidates Who Skip Popular Test,” Los Angeles Times, February 8, 1960, p. 1.
“Kennedy Says We Should Err On Side Of Safety In Spending For Defense,” Washington Post /Times Herald, February 21, 1960.
John H. Fenton, “Nixon Denies Kennedy Is Soft on Reds, Repudiating New Hampshire Governor; Angry Senator Asserts He Is Disgusted at ‘Smear’ — Primary Is Today; Powell Reiterates Stand in a Telegram Sent to the Vice-President…,” New York Times, March 8, 1960.
“Nixon, Kennedy Score Big Victories in N.H.,” Los Angeles Times, March 9, 1960, p. 1.
UPI, “Kennedy Enters Indiana Primary; Baptist Sect Demonstrators Challenge Him to Debate on Catholic President,” New York Times, March 22, 1960.
“Strategic Warpath in Wisconsin; Kennedy Bandwagon, Challenged By Humphrey, Heads For First Big Test,” Life, March 28, 1960, pp. 22-27.
Robert Ajemian, “Jack’s Campaign Aids: Hard Working Family, Enthusiastic Catholics,” Life, March 28, 1960, pp. 28-29.
Edward T. Folliard, “Triumph for Kennedy Not Up to Expectations” (re: Wisconsin victory), Washington Post / Times Herald, April 6, 1960, p. A-1.
W. H. Lawrence, “’Stop Kennedy’ Drive Led By Byrd of West Virginia; Coalition Being Formed to Support Humphrey in Primary…,” New York Times, April 11, 1960, p. 1.
Chalmers M. Roberts, “Supporters of 3 Absent Candidates Gang Up on Kennedy in West Virginia,” Washington Post/Times Herald, April 14, 1960, p. A-1.
Carroll Kilpatrick, “Kennedy Opens Fire On Bigotry; He Takes Offensive In W.Va; Charges Plot to Beat Him; Kennedy Strikes at Religious Issue, Charges ‘Gang-Up’; Sees Rival a Stalking-Horse, Points to State Problems,” Washington Post/Times Herald, April 19, 1960, p. A-1.
Harry McCracken, “My Kennedy Polaroids: Instant History”(Medford, Oregon, April 23, 1960),” Time.com (techland), January 14, 2013.
Carroll Kilpatrick, “Tour of West Virginia Planned by Johnson,” Washington Post/Times Herald, April 30, 1960, p. A-2.
“Kennedy-Humphrey Primary Debate” (West Virginia, TV Debate), OurCampaigns.com, May 4, 1960.
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President Barack Obama and rock star Bruce Springsteen stand arm-and-arm at Madison, Wisconsin campaign rally on November 5, 2012. Photo, Nikki Kahn/Washington Post.
One of the more interesting images from the 2012 presidential election campaign came on November 5th, 2012, the day before the election, when President Barack Obama was campaigning in Madison, Wisconsin. On election day November 6th, The Washington Post ran a front page photo from that event of the President standing arm-and-arm with rock legend Bruce Springsteen as he waved to the crowd. Other newspapers and news wires also used this same photo or similar ones of the same Obama-Springsteen appearance.
The photo captures a political moment, certainly, but it also underscores how important celebrity endorsements and celebrity imagery have become in elections of all kinds – even though political analysts have said time and time again, that celebrities have only a marginal effect on persuading voters to go with one candidate or another.
Front page of November 6th, 2012 edition of Washington Post newspaper using the Obama-Springsteen photo.
There may also be something of a first in the Washington Post putting this image on its front page. How many times has a sitting president appeared in a campaign photo arm-and-arm with a celebrity that ran on the front page of a national newspaper – or on the cover of a major news magazine? Presumably, that’s pretty rare – especially on election day.
But perhaps that’s a moot question in these times since presidents and presidential candidates appear frequently with celebrities in many public venues. And yes, politicians have been courting the rich, famous, and otherwise influential since forever. Politicians in ancient Rome no doubt sought out famous gladiators and popular generals to do their bidding.
The December 2007 endorsement of U.S. Senator Barack Obama for president by TV celebrity Oprah Winfrey (yellow jacket) made front page news across the country.
Today of course, politicians appear regularly on TV shows such as the Late Show with David Letterman, The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, The View,The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, and others. And with the web and You Tube, images of politicians and celebrities are now quite ubiquitous. It is also noted thatin recent years even papers like the Washington Post have included more coverage of celebrities in politics, with regular sections devoted to celebrity doings on all manner of public policy, consequential or not.
Yet there is still something indelible and lasting about photographs of the Springsteen-Obama variety displayed on the front pages of major newspapers. Clearly, the decisions by major news organizations to use such images in prominent display are not minor matters, or made without purpose. In this specific case, no doubt, the choice of photo and its placement likely had something to do with the type of Midwest working-class voters that pundits were saying Obama absolutely needed to win re-election – and Bruce Springsteen’s appeal to those very same voters. But beyond these questions of news organization photo choices and the play now given celebrities in politics, the Obama-Springsteen alliance is interesting in its own right, and has a history that now stretches over several years.
Bruce Springsteen performing at an Obama campaign rally in Cleveland, Ohio, 2008.
Bruce Springsteen has been in Barack Obama’s corner since at least April 2008 when he first endorsed then U.S. Senator Barack Obama for the Democratic presidential nomination. Obama at the time was battling Hillary Clinton for his party’s presidential nomination. Springsteen, who first became a rock sensation in the mid-1970s, has been sought out by politicians for years who have tried to associate with his music, gain his endorsement, and/or use his name in a speech, as Ronald Reagan did when he was campaigning for reelection in New Jersey in September 1984.
But in April 2008 when Springsteen endorsed Obama, the rock star explained that the candidate “speaks to the America I’ve envisioned in my music for the past 35 years.” In a letter Springsteen posted on his website addressed to friends and fans, he explained that he believed Obama was the best candidate to undo “the terrible damage done over the past eight years.” In Springsteen’s view, Obama had “the depth, the reflectiveness, and the resilience to be our next president…”
Nov. 2, 2008: Bruce Springsteen with then presidential candidate Sen. Barack Obama at rally in Cleveland, Ohio. AP photo/Alex Brandon.
During the 2008 campaign, Springsteen appeared at several Obama rallies, and also performed several solo acoustic performances in support of Obama. Near the end of the 2008 campaign, on November 2nd, he debuted the song “Working on a Dream” in a duet with his wife, Patti Scialfa.
At one Ohio rally during the 2008 campaign, Springsteen discussed the importance of “truth, transparency and integrity in government, the right of every American to have a job, a living wage, to be educated in a decent school, and a life filled with the dignity of work, the promise and the sanctity of home…But today those freedoms have been damaged and curtailed by eight years of a thoughtless, reckless and morally-adrift administration.”
On the night of Obama’s electoral victory, November 4, 2008, Springsteen’s song “The Rising” was the first song played at the Chicago Grant Park rally after Obama’s victory speech.
Bruce Springsteen performing "The Rising" with an all-female choir at President Obama’s inauguration, 2009.
January 18, 2009: Scene around the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. during inaugural concert & festivities.
Bruce Springsteen was also the opening musical act for the Obama Inaugural Celebration at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. on January 18, 2009 – an event attended by more than 400,000 people.
At that celebration, Springsteen performed “The Rising” with an all-female choir and also sang Woody Guthrie’s “This Land Is Your Land” with Pete Seeger. Springsteen and Seeger were not the only performers that day, as a number of others performed then and through the evening with the various inaugural balls.
A long list of Hollywood stars and musical artists came to Washington as invited performers, readers, and special guests to fete Obama on his special day. A partial list of some of those involved in the inaugural festivities include the following: Jack Black, Mary J. Blige, Jon Bon Jovi, Garth Brooks, Steve Carrell, Sheryl Crow, Rosario Dawson, Renee Fleming, Jamie Foxx, Josh Groban, Herbie Hancock, Tom Hanks, Heather Headley, Ashley Judd, Martin Luther King III, Beyonce Knowles, Queen Latifah, Bettye Lavette, John Legend, Laura Linney, George Lopez, Jennifer Nettles, John Mellencamp, Kal Penn, Shakira, James Taylor, Marisa Tomei, Usher, U2, Denzel Washington, Forest Whitaker, will.i.am, Stevie Wonder, Tiger Woods, and others.
Kennedy Center Honors
Actor Robert De Niro looks on as President Obama congratulates Bruce Springsteen as a Kennedy Center Honoree during a December 2009 White House ceremony.
In December 2009, Bruce Springsteen was one of five recipients designated for the Kennedy Center Honors – an annual award made to various artists for their contributions to American culture. In addition to Springsteen, Mel Brooks, Dave Brubeck, Grace Bumbry, and Robert De Niro were also honored that year. At a White House reception for the honorees, here is what President Obama had to say about Springsteen:
…Finally, we honor the quiet kid from Jersey — (laughter) — who grew up to become the rock ‘n’ roll laureate of a generation. For in the life of our country only a handful of people have tapped the full power of music to tell the real American story — with honesty; from the heart; and one of those people is Bruce Springsteen.
He has said: “I’ve always believed that people listen to your music not to find out about you, but to find out about themselves.” And for more than three decades, in his songs — of dreams and despair, of struggle and hope — hardworking folks have seen themselves.
They’ve seen their great state of New Jersey. And they’ve seen their America — in songs that become anthems. Restless kids who were “Born to Run.” The struggles of workers in “My Hometown.” The sacrifices of vets who were “Born in the U.S.A.” Love and loss in “Streets of Philadelphia.” A resilient nation in “The Rising.” And, this year, a country “Working on a Dream.”
…[W]hen I watched him on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial when he rocked the National Mall before my inauguration,I thought it captured as well as anything the spirit of what America should be about…
– President Barack Obama
It’s no wonder that his tours are not so much concerts, but communions. There’s a place for everybody -— the sense that no matter who you are or what you do, everyone deserves their shot at the American Dream; everybody deserves a little bit of dignity; everybody deserves to be heard.
I’ve seen it myself. Bruce was a great fan — a great friend over the last year, and when I watched him on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial when he rocked the National Mall before my inauguration, I thought it captured as well as anything the spirit of what America should be about. On a day like that, and today, I remember: I’m the President, but he’s The Boss. (Applause.)
And Bruce continues to inspire, along with his “house-rocking, earth-shaking” E Street Band. At 60 years old, he’s still filling stadiums, still whipping fans into a frenzy, still surfing the crowd, still jumping off pianos, and still reaching new fans, and still being nominated for Grammys. It’s been a long road from that stage at Stone Pony in Asbury Park to this stage today, but this much we know — after more than 30 years and 120 million albums sold, Bruce Springsteen is still one “cool rockin’ Daddy.” (Laughter and applause.)
At the Kennedy Center ceremony, Springsteen was also lauded by several celebrities including Jon Stewart, with musical tributes from John Mellencamp, Ben Harper, Jennifer Nettles, Melissa Etheridge, Eddie Vedder, and Sting. Meanwhile, back in Springsteen’s home state of New Jersey, some developments on the Republican side of the political aisle during 2009 would also involve the singer and his music.
2009: New Jersey’s Chris Christie.
No To Christie
In November 2009, Chris Christie – an up-and-coming Republican star in New Jersey’s political ranks who had been a top fundraiser for George W. Bush’s 2000 presidential campaign, and later, New Jersey’s U.S. attorney – was elected governor. He had defeated former Democratic governor and U.S. Senator Jon Corzine. Christie was also a devoted Bruce Springsteen fan who had attended more than 120 of Springsteen’s concerts.
Christie regarded Springsteen’s politics as a form of populism that anyone could identify with, though he parts ways with Springsteen on some of his core philosophy, such as his view that “nobody wins unless everybody wins.” Christie holds “that in life there are winners and losers — there just are… We can’t make everybody winners. But you can make more people winners.” Christie says he doesn’t take Sprinsteen’s politics personally. For him, with Springsteen, it’s the music that matters.
After his election, Christie wanted nothing more than to have Springsteen appear at his inauguration, scheduled for January 2010. Through an intermediary, Christie sent word to Springsteen’s manager, Jon Landau, to ask if Springsteen would perform. Christie offered to make a gift to Springsteen’s charity of choice if he would agree to perform for the governor-elect.In late 2009, New Jersey governor Chris Christie wanted Springsteen to perform at his inaugural festivities. Knowing that Springsteen was a Democrat, Christie’s people also offered to put a little distance between the Christie inauguration and any Springsteen event, suggesting a benefit concert in the week leading up to the January 19th inaugural. The editors of The Star Ledger newspaper of Newark, New Jersey, the state’s largest circulation newspaper, even ran an editorial on November 7th urging Springsteen to do the concert, saying the state needed “a Kumbaya moment.” But word came back that Springsteen did not want to get involved in state politics. Springsteen’s rejection was reportedly polite – that he was quite aware that Christie was a fan, and as a loyal citizen of New Jersey, wished him every success as governor. Christie’s people then arranged for the B Street Band, a Springsteen tribute band, to perform at the governor-elect’s inaugural party. But there would be more to come with Christie and Springsteen later. Christie, in any case, became more of a national figure as he began to be touted as a possible Republican Presidential candidate.
Bruce Springsteen with harmonica.
In early 2012, it appeared that Springsteen was not going to become involved in the Obama re-election campaign. In January, he told ABC News: “I prefer to stay on the sidelines… I genuinely believe an artist [is] supposed to be the canary in the coal mine, and you’re better off with a certain distance from the seat of power.”
Springsteen noted at the time that he wasn’t entirely happy with Obama’s first term. He said he would have liked to have seen “more activism in job creation sooner than it came,” but that Obama had generally done a good job up to that, ticking off some of the President’s accomplishments: “…He kept GM alive, which was incredibly important to Detroit and Michigan, and he got the health care law passed, although I wish there had been a public option and didn’t leave the citizens victims of the insurance companies. He killed Osama bin Laden, which was extremely important. He brought some sanity to the top level of government.”
Cover art for Bruce Springsteen single, "We Take Care of Our Own."
Musically, meanwhile, Springsteen had been working on a new album that would bear the title, Wrecking Ball, his 17th studio album; an album that included a compilation of songs that were a reaction to, and indictment of, Wall Street’s financial crisis and the effect it has had on the nation and people’s lives.
Wrecking Ball wouldn’t be released until March 2012, but one of its songs was released early – “We Take Care of Our Own” – which made its live debut on February 12, 2012 at the 54th Grammy Awards.
The song is a lament that finds a nation in trouble, hinting at the divided partisanship and a government that has had its failings in helping people. “I been looking for the map that leads me home,” Springsteen sings. “I been stumbling on good hearts turned to stone / The road of good intentions has gone dry as a bone.” The song’s central message appears to be that we are a nation that does take care of our own – that is our core philosophy and who we are; something we all understand. Yet we haven’t always done that, and sometimes we falter. And now, in the throes the current hard times, the Springsteen song is reminding us that we need to get back to that task, as he sings:. “Wherever this flag’s flown, we take care of our own.”
“We Take Care Of Our Own”
On February 9th, 2012, a few days before the song’s airing at the Grammy Awards, Obama’s reelection team released a playlist of five songs the campaign would be using at campaign rallies. Among the songs was Springsteen’s “We Take Care of Our Own.” Others on the list included: “I Got You” by Wilco; “Roll With The Changes” by REO Speedwagon; “You’ve Got The Love” by Florence & The Machine; and, “Let’s Stay Together” by Al Green.
“We Take Care of Our Own” Bruce Springsteen
I’ve been knockin’ on the door that holds the throne
I’ve been lookin’ for the map that leads me home
I’ve been stumblin’ on good hearts turned to stone
Those good intentions have gone dry as bone
We take care of our own
We take care of our own
Wherever this flag’s flown
We take care of our own
From Chicago to New Orleans
From the muscle to the bone
From the shotgun shack to the Superdome
We needed help but the cavalry stayed home,
There ain’t no-one hearing the bugle blown
We take care of our own
We take care of our own
Wherever this flag’s flown
We take care of our own
Where’s the eyes, the eyes with the will to see
Where’s the hearts, they run over with mercy
Where’s the love that has not forsaken me
Where’s the work that set my hands, my soul free
Where’s the spirit to reign, reign over me
Where’s the promise, from sea to shining sea
Where’s the promise, from sea to shining sea
Wherever this flag is flown
Wherever this flag is flown
Wherever this flag is flown
We take care of our own
We take care of our own
Wherever this flag’s flown
We take care of our own
We take care of our own
We take care of our own
Wherever this flag’s flown
We take care of our own
However, the Springsteen tune became a popular and often used song during the Obama campaign – as its main refrain – “we take care of our own” – was generally a good fit with what the Obama Administration was trying to do with its economic recovery programs; trying to lift the nation out of its hard times. At the Democratic National Convention in early September 2012, the song also received some prime-time exposure when it was played immediately following Barack Obama’s speech on September 6th. While Obama’s speech may not have been the highlight of the convention, the airing of the Springsteen song at that time helped boost the music. According to Billboard, sales for “We Take Care Of Our Own” jumped more 400 percent during the weekend that ended September 9, 2012, following Obama’s speech. And by late September, after Mitt Romney’s remarks at a private fundraiser were made public about how “47 percent” of the electorate were victims and that he wouldn’t have to worry about them if elected President, the Springsteen song, “We Take Care of Our Own,” took on even more resonance at the Obama rallies.
But Springsteen himself had repeated his intent to stay out of the race, making remarks to The New Yorker in July 2012, saying that he wasn’t sure whether he’d get involved again: “I did it twice [once for Kerry in 2004 and Obama in 2008] because things were so dire… It seemed like if I was ever going to spend whatever small political capital I had, that was the moment to do so. But that capital diminishes the more often you do it. While I’m not saying never, and I still like to support the President, you know, it’s something I didn’t do for a long time, and I don’t have plans to be out there every time.” But as the race tightened in late September and early October, especially following Obama’s faltering in the first debate, Springsteen once again became a more visible Obama supporter.
Ticket to Bill Clinton-Bruce Sprinsteen rally for Obama in Parma, Ohio.
Bill Clinton greeting Bruce Springsteen on stage at Parma, Ohio Obama rally.
By October 13th, the White House was reporting that Springsteen would campaign for Obama. “Bruce Springsteen’s values echo what the President and Vice President stand for: hard work, fairness, integrity,” said Jim Messina, Obama for America’s campaign manager. “His appearances will help with our get out the vote effort in these critical swing states and we are thrilled with his ongoing support.”
On October 17, 2012, Springsteen took to his website to explain his support for the President. “A message from Bruce” noted in part: “Right now, there is a fight going on to help make this a fairer and more equitable nation. For me, President Obama is our best choice to get us and keep us moving in the right direction…” In the message, Springsteen also voiced support for “sterling candidates” Sen. Sherrod Brown (D-Ohio) and Elizabeth Warren, the Massachusetts Democrat seeking a U.S. Senate seat.
On the following day, October 18th, 2012, Springsteen joined former president Bill Clinton at an Obama campaign rally in Parma, Ohio, near Cleveland. A crowd of 3,000 fill a gymnasium at Cuyahoga Community College, with 700 more in an overflow area.
Rosalind Helderman of the Washington Post filed her story on the event with the opening: “President Obama brought the big guns — Bubba and the Boss — to Ohio Thursday to shore up his slim edge in the key battleground state.” Bill Clinton, for his part, said during the rally, as reported by the New York Times: “This is the first time in my life I ever got to be the warm-up act for Bruce Springsteen… I am qualified ’cause I was born in the U.S.A.,” said Clinton, “and unlike one of the candidates for president, I keep all my money here!”
Springsteen told the Ohio crowd that he’d spent three decades “writing about the distance between the American dream and the American reality” and believed Obama was the man to help close the gap between the two. Voting, he said, was “the principle way we get to determine that distance and that equation… Voting matters. Elections matter.”
Bruce Springsteen performing with acoustic guitar at Obama rally in Parma, Ohio.
Springsteen performed a set of four songs in Parma, and on the same day, he also appeared at another Obama event in Ames, Iowa. After that, there were more appearances by Springsteen at Obama events in Virginia, Pittsburgh and Wisconsin. On Saturday afternoon, October 27th in Pittsburgh, for example, he performed for Obama before a capacity crowd at the Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall and Military Museum.
In late October, however, as Hurricane Sandy began it destructive trek up the East Coast, the presidential campaign was temporarily overshadowed. But this event, too, figured into the Obama-Springsteen interplay and national politics.
President Barack Obama hugs marina owner Donna Vanzant as he tours hurricane-damaged Brigantine, N.J., with Gov. Chris Christie, Oct. 31, 2012. Photo, Larry Downing /Reuters.
On the evening of October 29th, 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall at Atlantic City in southern New Jersey, and soon ravaged the NewYork-New Jersey area with severe flooding and extensive damage to coastal areas. The hurricane occurred in the final weeks of the presidential election campaign, putting both the Obama and Romney campaigns into a temporary lull. But the catastrophe brought President Obama to the storm-damaged New York-New Jersey area, raising his national leader visibility as full state and national emergency efforts were launched to deal with the devastation. The President came to the hard hit areas, and joined with New York Governor Cuomo, New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg, and New Jersey Governor Chris Christie to commit government help to the devastated communities. New Jersey Governor Chris Christie had praise for the president during the crisis – a sore point with the Republicans and the president’s opponent, Gov. Mitt Romney. “It’s really important to have the President of the United States acknowledge all the suffering that’s going on here in New Jersey and I appreciate it very much,” Christie said during Obama’s October 31st visit to the Brigantine Beach Community Center in Brigantine, N.J., north of Atlantic City. Christie and the President stayed in contact by phone in the days following the disaster.
Steven Tyler, Jimmy Fallon, Mark Rivera & Bruce Springsteen perform during NBC's Hurricane Sandy telethon which raised 32 million dollars. Photo, Heidi Gutman/NBC
Meanwhile, Bruce Springsteen, a New Jersey native who came to fame in Asbury Park, also became involved in Sandy relief effort. He was doing his scheduled concert appearances during this time as well, and on October 31, 2012, two days following the storm, he dedicated his performance at a concert in Rochester, New York to those affected by the storm and those helping with the recovery effort. At another concert at Penn State University on November 1st, he gave a shout out to Governor Christie for his hurricane work.
On Friday November 2nd, 2012, Springsteen and Jon Bon Jovi, also a New Jersey native, joined Sting, Christina Aguilera and other music stars for an NBC-organized televised benefit concert to raise funds for victims of Sandy. The show, titled “Hurricane Sandy: Coming Together” was organized by NBC as a commercial-free one- hour benefit. In addition to Bon Jovi, Sting, Springsteen and Agulera were other performers and celebrities, including: Billy Joel, Jimmy Fallon, Steven Tyler, Mary J. Blige, Tina Fey, Jon Stewart, Whoopi Goldberg, Danny DeVito and NBC News’ Brian Williams. Today show co-anchor Matt Lauer was the host. During the show, Springsteen joined Billy Joel, Steven Tyler and Jimmy Fallon for a performance of “Under the Boardwalk.” Springsteen and the E Street Band closed the show on a message of hope with a rousing rendition of their tune “Land of Hope and Dreams.” The telethon raised some $32 million. All money was donated to the American Red Cross.
Gov. Christie & Bruce Springsteen back- stage at NBC's Hurricane Sandy telethon.
Backstage at this event, Springsteen had a moment with one of his biggest fans, Governor Chris Christie, where according to Christie, “we hugged and he told me, ‘it’s official, we’re friends’.” A quick photo of this meeting, capturing a handshake between the two backstage, was taken by Al Roker of NBC, shown at left. A few days later, when Springsteen was traveling with Obama to make a few final campaign stops, the President was getting a post-Sandy telephone update from Christie when he told the governor he had someone who wanted to talk with him, bringing Springsteen on the line. “We had a good conversation today,” said Christie of the call. “It was great to talk to the president and even better to talk to Bruce.”
Poster for final campaign event in Des Moines, Iowa for Nov 5, 2012 with the President, Michelle Obama & Bruce Springsteen.
As the presidential race resumed in early November, the Obama campaign announced that Springsteen would be making more appearances at Obama rallies in Wisconsin, Ohio, and Iowa on November 5th, 2012, the day before the election. Springsteen then appeared on that day at three rallies for Obama – one in Madison, Wisconsin; one in Columbus, Ohio with Jay-Z; and a final appearance in Des Moines, Iowa with the president and Michelle Obama.
Other entertainers would also appear for Obama the final weekend before the election – John Mellencamp, Saturday, November 3rd in Iowa; Dave Matthews the same day in Virginia; and Stevie Wonder on Sunday November 4th in Cincinnati. Springsteen and his wife Patti, meanwhile, would travel with Obama on Air Force One for at least part of the tour on November 5th. Reportedly, the President even remarked: “I’m going to be flying with Bruce Springsteen on the last day I’ll ever campaign, that’s not a bad way to bring it home.”
On that day, November 5th, the first of three stops was Madison, Wisconsin, the state capital, and home to the University of Wisconsin. The rally took place in the streets near the capitol building. Some 18,000 supporters had gathered there in the cold as early as 6:30 a.m., four hours before Obama would arrive.
President Barack Obama greeting Bruce Springsteen at Madison, WI campaign rally.
Springsteen opened the rally with his “No Surrender” song. Helene Cooper of the New York Times, reporting on the final day’s itinerary, noted that Obama aides, David Plouffe, David Axelrod and Robert Gibbs had positioned themselves atop a crane to get a better view of Springsteen, who also played “The Promised Land.” Springsteen also added commentary between songs, saying at one point: “It’s crunch time now, the president’s job, our job, yours and mine – whether you’re a Republican, a Democrat, an independent, rich, poor, black, brown, white, gay, straight, soldier, civilian – is to keep that hope alive.” Springsteen’s final song was “Land of Hope and Dreams,” after which Obama came up on the stage, greeting Springsteen with a bear hug. Obama had been on whirlwind cross-country jaunt of swing states and was then drinking warm tea in between appearances to soothe an overworked voicebox. “We have come too far to turn back now…,” Obama told the Madison gathering. “Now is the time to keep pushing forward.”
On the way to the next rally, in Columbus, Ohio, Springsteen sat with Obama aboard Air Force One as the two discussed the Hurricane Sandy recovery effort then underway in New Jersey. That’s when the President was also speaking on the phone with Governor Chris Christie, and when he brought Springsteen on the line to chat briefly with the governor.
President Barack Obama on stage at Columbus, Ohio rally Nov. 5, 2012, flanked by Jay-Z and Bruce Springsteen.
In Columbus, more than 15,000 turned out for the Obama event at the Nationwide Arena that included both Springsteen and rapper Jay-Z. But before the two artists would perform, a series of local and state politicians made various introductions and short statements, including Columbus mayor Michael Coleman, Ohio Governor Ted Strickland, and U.S. Senator Sherrod Brown. Then came Springsteen followed by Jay-Z. Springsteen did a short set of abridged versions of “No Surrender” and “The Promised Land,” as well as a campaign sing-along for the Obama campaign’s “Forward” slogan. Jay-Z followed with some animated rap that the crowd loved, adapting his “99 Problems” song for to fit the President’s rival: “I got 99 problems,” he rapped, “but Mitt ain’t one…” Jay-Z also introduced the president in Columbus. Obama, addressing the crowd, said: “Ohio, after four years, you know me by now… You may be frustrated with the pace of change but that’s O.K., so am I…” Obama also said of Jay-Z and Springsteen that day: “Not only are they on my iPod – and yes, the president has an iPod – both of them tell an American story.”
Jay-Z on the cover of the Forbes 400 "rich list" issue for 2010, along with Warren Buffett.
Jay-Z, whose real name is Shawn Carter, grew up in Brooklyn and had earlier struggles with crime, but went on become a very successful recording artist, music producer and wealthy businessman, marrying pop star Beyoncé Knowles and recently becoming a father.
During the Columbus rally, Obama remarked of some similarities between he and Jay-Z: “Nobody would expect us to be where we are today if they had met us as younger men, both of us have daughters, and both of us have wives who are more popular than we are.” Obama also told the crowd that Jay-Z and Springsteen were examples of “what our country is about” – two guys who rose from humble beginnings to go on to fame and fortune.
Their music that day, in any case, helped bring out a diverse and appreciative crowd. Karmesha Hicks, a 20-year-old student from Berea, Ohio attending the rally told a reporter on the way out : “It was very inspirational… I love that he brought two very different artists together. It shows what he [Obama] is about.”
Jay-Z, President Obama & Bruce Sprinsteen have one last wave to the crowd in Columbus, Ohio.
For Obama, the Columbus rally marked his 29th political appearance in Ohio for 2012. The president had also done a number of taped radio interviews that day, dropped in for a visit at his Columbus campaign office, and appeared on ESPN during halftime of “Monday Night Football” that evening, as did Mitt Romney.
A few hours later that same day, also in Columbus, Romney and his wife Ann appeared before an enthusiastic crowd in a large airport hangar at Port Columbus. At that rally, the Marshall Tucker Band helped stir the crowd for Romney and he also had two well-known Ohio athletes speak there before he took the podium – ice skater Scott Hamilton and pro golfer Jack Nicklaus.
Back at the Obama rally at the Nationwide Arena, President Obama, after he gave his speech, brought Springsteen and Jay-Z back up to the stage (along with the prior speakers as well) for one last wave to crowd — this as a recorded version of “We Take Care of Our Own” played in the background. Then it was on to Iowa.
Bruce Springsteen escorted first lady Michelle Obama to the stage in Des Moines, 5 Nov `12.
According to a New York Times report, Air Force One arrived at the Des Moines airport at 8:59 p.m. Central Time. This was to be Obama’s last campaign stop that day before going home to Chicago where he and his family owuld await the election returns. His motorcade waited on the tarmac at Des Moines since the flight with first lady Michelle Obama arrived about 15 minutes later, when the president got out of his car to greet and hug his wife as she exited the plane. From there, the motorcade made its way to downtown Des Moines where some 20,000 supporters were waiting in a section of town lit up with floodlights for the event. At about 9:30 p.m., Bruce Springsteen made his introduction and played ‘The Promised Land.”
He closed out his 25-minute mix of songs and commentary with “Land of Hope and Dreams,” finishing just before 10 p.m., when he introduced First Lady Michelle Obama to the crowd. Mrs. Obama thanked the “great state of Iowa” for launching the Obama bid to “change the country four years ago” and not long thereafter, introduced her husband.
Michelle & Barack Obama wave to the crowd in Des Moines, Iowa, Nov. 5, 2012.
President Obama underscored the fact that it was in Des Moines where his campaign in 2008 really got its start. He reminisced with the crowd about how his improbable bid back in the winter of 2008, with its upset victory over Hilary Clinton and John Edwards in the Iowa Democratic primary, sent him on his way.
The President teared up a bit as he recalled those days, but went on to give a rousing 30-minute speech, telling the crowd, “I‘ve come back to Iowa one more time to ask for your vote,” adding that his campaign would “finish where we started.”
Beyond the nostalgia, Iowa was also a key state in the President’s Midwestern campaign strategy. Victories in Iowa, Wisconsin and Ohio would put the president over the required 270 electoral votes needed for reelection.
Obama was up by about five points in the state according to most of the Iowa polls, but his campaign was taking nothing for granted. The Des Moines Register had endorsed him in 2008, but this time the leading Iowa newspaper had sided with Mitt Romney. After the Iowa stop, the Obama campaign moved on to Chicago where, among other things, the President was scheduled to have a bit of exercise in a traditional election-day pick-up basketball game.
November 6, 2012: Election day edition of the “State Journal” newspaper in Madison, WI showing President Obama greeting Bruce Springsteen at rally a day earlier.
On election day, voter turnout was heavy in a number of states, with polling places extending hours in some cases as long lines had formed. The ongoing tabulation of results remained close well into the night, with special attention focused on some seven key swing states, Ohio chief among them. Sometime after 11:15 pm Eastern Time, various news organizations called Ohio and Iowa for President Obama, and not long thereafter, at about 11:30 pm, they began calling the presidential election for Obama.
The final election results revealed that Obama took 50.96 percent of the popular vote with 65,464,068 votes, while Mitt Romney had 47.31 percent with 60,781,275 votes. The electoral talley was 332 for Obama and 206 for Romney.
In the various election post-mortems of how each candidate had performed, there were analysts who noted the help Obama had received from Hollywood and music industry celebrities. One post-election piece from Slate writer Ron Rosenbaum suggested that Bruce Springsteen’s appearances, in particular, might have played a key role in swaying undecided souls in key battleground states like Ohio:
…Indeed, in the final days, with Bruce riding around with Obama on Air Force One, it was almost as though he was on the ticket, Obama’s spiritual VP. Or at least ambassador from Asbury Park…. And the concerts and especially that song ["We Take Care of Our Own"] —the guy knows how to go straight for the heart, like a laser-guided drone. He knows how to make you feel, for at least an instant, we could all be better than we are. That’s a talent.
And with the election coming down to the last minutes, the last few votes, it can’t be insignificant that the demographic of attendees drawn to Obama campaign events by all those free Bruce concerts was the heart of the heart of the undecided voter segment that would eventually give Obama the election. After all, once you consider that Obama won Ohio by fewer than 2 percent, don’t try to tell me the combination of Sandy, Christie, and above all Bruce wasn’t the decider. In fact the Wall Street Journal post-election analysis of the Ohio vote put Obama’s margin in swing counties in Ohio at 16,176—about the total for a couple of small Bruce concerts…
Bruce Not Alone
2010: President Obama talks with actor George Clooney outside Oval Office. Clooney hosted a Los Angeles fundraiser for the president in May 2012. Photo, Pete Souza/White House
But Bruce Springsteen was certainly not alone among high-profile celebrities who helped Obama in his reelection bid. While Springsteen was performing with Obama in November, for example, John Mellencamp was doing the same with Vice President Joe Biden an Jill Biden in Virginia.
In fact, throughout the 2012 campaign, a number of musicians helped Obama with concerts, rallies, and other support. In April, the Red Hot Chili Peppers gave a private performance for 1,200 campaign staffers in Cleveland; in July, Alicia Keys headlined a rally for women voters in Philadelphia; and in early October, Stevie Wonder, Katy Perry, Jon Bon Jovi and Jennifer Hudson all performed at a campaign event in Los Angeles. Dave Matthews performed at an Obama rally in Bristow, Virginia and also in Aurora, Colorado. In North Carolina, James Taylor undertook an eight-show tour on behalf of Obama, and Pearl Jam’s Eddie Vedder appeared at a $20,000-per-ticket fund-raiser in Tampa, Florida.
Actor Morgan Freeman was among five celebrity donors who each contributed one million dollars to support the Obama campaign.
Beyond the musicians and high-profile endorsers at campaign rallies there was also the matter of campaign money. Lots of celebrities from Hollywood and the broader entertainment industry gave generously to the Obama campaign and related Political Action Committees (PACs). According to a review of federal election documents by OpenSecrets.org, run by the nonpartisan Center for Responsive Politics, more than 200 celebrities donated a total of some $712,000 to Obama’s re-election bid in the 2012 campaign cycle. Among these donors were, for example: Tom Hanks, Magic Johnson, Ben Stiller, Eva Longoria, Will Smith, Scarlett Johansson, Barbara Streisand, Aaron Sorkin, Steven Spielberg, Gwen Stefani, Quentin Tarantino, Melanie Griffith, Quincy Jones, Cameron Crowe, Don Henley, Ellen DeGeneres, Nancy Sinatra, Jack Black, Jamie Foxx, Randy Newman, Jennifer Garner, Leonardo DiCaprio, Robert Downey Jr., Mariska Hargitay, Jamie Lee Curtis, Marlo Thomas, John Legend, Emmylou Harris, Sam Waterston, and others. Another 90 or so celebrities donated to DNC Services Corp., the Democratic National Committee. Five celebrities, including Morgan Freeman and Bill Maher, donated $1 million each to Priorities USA Action, a super PAC supporting Obama. Among “bundlers” for Obama from Hollywood – those who pull together multiple donations in one bundle – were Jeffrey Katzenberg of DreamWorks Animation, Obama’s top bundler, pulling together some $2.3 million in donations, and Barry and Wendy Meyer of Warner Brothers, bundling $1.9 million.
Music power couple Beyoncé & Jay-Z, shown here at a New Jersey Nets basketball game, hosted a special fundraiser for Obama in New York in Sept 2012.
Actor George Clooney hosted a fundraiser at his Los Angeles home in May 2012 that Obama attended which raised over $15 million. In August, the president attended a fundraiser on Long Island, New York hosted by movie mogul Harvey Weinstein, actress Anne Hathaway, Vogue editor Anna Wintour, and filmmaker Aaron Sorkin. Actresses Julianne Moore and Sarah Jessica Parker also hosted separate fundraisers for the president in 2012. In September, Jay-Z and Beyoncé hosted a $40,000-per-seat Manhattan fundraiser for the president at Jay-Z’s 40/40 club. Jay-Z also released a campaign video for Obama in October, and as noted above, campaigned with Bruce Springsteen and the president in Columbus, Ohio. Other celebrities made pro-Obama videos that circulated on the web, including Will Ferrell, Cher, and Kathy Griffin. Morgan Freeman narrated a pro-Obama campaign ad. Still, this is not a full accounting of all the campaign assistance the Obama effort received from actors, musicians, playwrights, professional athletes, and other celebrities.
Actor Jon Voight – known for his roles in films such as “Midnight Cowboy” (1969), “Coming Home” (1978), and “Mission Impossible” (1996) – supported Mitt Romney.
Romney and the Republicans had their share of celebrities too. Detroit musician Kid Rock performed at Romney rallies and the Romney campaign used Rock’s “Born Free” song as one of its regular campaign anthems for much of 2012. Randy Owen, the lead singer of the group Alabama, and Johnny Van Zant, frontman for Lynyrd Skynyrd, also endorsed Romney, as did country music star Trace Adkins, who performed at campaign rallies for Romney. John Elway, former quarterback for the Denver Broncos, endorsed Romney in Colorado a few days before the first debate. Donnie and Marie Osmond were Romney supporters, as was Gene Simmons of the rock group Kiss. Actors Jon Voight, Kelsey Grammar, Robert Duvall, Check Norris and Jeff Foxworthy endorsed Romney too, as did Clint Eastwood, famously, at the Republican National Convention. Obama out-raised Romney by nearly 5-to-1 among donors from the “TV/ movies/music” segment. Cindy Crawford appeared in a video on behalf of Romney, and comedian Dennis Miller and former pro golfer Jack Nicklaus also endorsed the Republican candidate.
But in terms of celebrity campaign donations, Romney had a relatively small share of the Hollywood/ music industry money pot, receiving some $46,500 from donors including: playwright Neil Simon, Olympic figure skater Kristi Yamaguchi, actor Orson Bean, producer Jerry Bruckheimer, professional football player Peyton Manning, and World Wrestling Entertainment CEO Vince McMahon and his wife, Linda, a Republican candidate herself, then running for the U.S. Senate seat in Connecticut being vacated by retiring Sen. Joe Lieberman. The McMahons were also among those donating to Restore Our Future, a conservative super PAC backing Romney’s bid. And the Republican National Committee picked up $78,886 from celebrity donors who included the McMahons, Jerry Bruckheimer, singer Pat Boone, New York Yankee baseball star, Alex Rodriguez, and others. But over the 2010-2012 election cycle, according to one count, Obama out-raised Romney by nearly a 5-to-1 margin among donors from the “TV/ movies/music” segment, receiving roughly $4.5 million in donations from that group compared to something under $1 million for the Romney campaign.
Springsteen Stood Out
November 6, 2012 election-day edition of the Wilmington, Delaware “News Journal” newspaper, also ran the Obama-Springsteen photo on its front page.
But Bruce Springsteen, because of his following in the swing-state and rust-belt Midwest – and also among working-class voters broadly – appears to have played a more-than-normal celebrity role in the final weeks of the 2012 election. And perhaps for that reason alone, his front-page notice in the Washington Post and a few other newspapers on election day was right on target. But Springsteen has also shown himself to be one of the more thoughtful celebrities when he does become involved in political campaigning, not entering the fray lightly. In 2004, when he decided to take up the cause for John Kerry, he wrote an Op-Ed piece in the New York Times explaining his views on the candidate. And he has also used his website to post longer statements explaining his political views and the backing of particular candidates. But for most of his fans – Democrat, Republican, or Independent – his message is already transparent in his music, which normally conveys a determined, though sometimes angry but usually hopeful, American patriotism.
David Nakamura, “In Ohio, Bill Clinton and Bruce Springsteen Will Lend a Hand to Obama / After a Rocky Month, Campaign Looks To Tap an Infusion of Star Power,” Washington Post, Sunday October 14, 2012, p. A-11.
“Jay-Z Stumps for Obama in New Campaign Clip; President Embodies the ‘Hope of All the People Across the Country’,” Rolling Stone, October 15, 2012.
Steve Knopper, “Rockers Rally to Obama in Campaign’s Final Days; Why Bruce Springsteen, Jay-Z and Other Stars Are Stumping for the President,” Rolling Stone, October 17, 2012.
Tom Nettleton, “Bruce Joins President & Mrs. Obama in Iowa,” BruceSpringsteen.net, November 5, 2012.
Henry J. Gomez, “Obama Rallies with Springsteen and Jay-Z in Columbus, Calls out Republicans for ‘Cynicism’.” Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio), November 5, 2012
Joe Hallett and Joe Vardon, “Candidates Give Celebrity-Studded Farewells to Columbus,”The Columbus Dispatch(Columbus, Ohio), Monday, November 5, 2012.
Deirdre Shesgreen, “Obama Columbus Rally: ‘Inspirational’,” Cincinnati.com, November 5, 2012.
Helene Cooper, “Campaign Diary: Candidates Spending Final Day in Swing States,” New York Times, November 5, 2012.
Brent Johnson, “Bruce Springsteen Joins Obama on Final Campaign Day,” The Star-Ledger, November 5, 2012.
Ali Weinberg, “Obama, Springsteen Wrap Up Wisconsin Campaign,” NBCNews.com, November 5, 2012.
Jim Kuhnhenn, Associated Press, “Obama Lines Up Stevie Wonder, Lady Gaga, Billie Jean King, Jay-Z & More In Campaign’s Final Days,” HuffingtonPost.com, November 5, 2012.
Zack O’Malley Greenburg, “Jay-Z, Barack Obama, Mitt Romney And The Politics Of Music,” Forbes.com, November 5, 2012.
“Bruce Springsteen For Obama: ‘Let’s Go To Work’ – In an Eloquent Speech, He Says the Election Decides the Difference Between the American Dream and American Reality,” Salon.com, Tuesday, November 6, 2012.
Helene Cooper, “A Bit of Quiet Optimism, and Some Superstition, Before a Tight Victory,” New York Times, November 6, 2012.
David Dolmage, “President and Michelle Obama, Bruce Springsteen Rally Iowa Voters One Last Time” (photos), West Des Moines Patch, November 6, 2012.
Associated Press, “AP Calls the Presidential Race – State by State,” AP.org, November 7, 2012.
Adam Nagourney and Jim Rutenberg, “Obama’s New Courting of Hollywood Pays Off,” New York Times, May 9, 2012.
Mackenzie Weinger, “Hollywood Stars Open Wallets for Obama,” Politico.com, July 12, 2011.
Anna M. Tinsley, “Stars Shine Again in 2012 Campaigns,” Star-Telegram.com(Ft. Worth, Texas), Monday, October 1, 2012.
Michael Janofsky, Reuters, “Hollywood Votes with its Wallet: Obama Holds 16-1 Advantage in Fund-Raising,” Chicago Tribune.com, October 27, 2012.
1952 Vice Presidential candidate Richard Nixon with family dog, ‘Checkers,’ among campaign gifts which Nixon sought to explain in his famous, nationally-televised September 1952 speech.
In September 1952, the Republicans had just set their national ticket for the fall elections. It was Dwight David Eisenhower for President of the United State and Richard M. Nixon for Vice President. Eisenhower, or “Ike” as he was known, was the popular military general who had been Supreme Allied Commander during the critical D-Day landing of World War II. Richard Nixon was a young rising political star from California who had been elected to Congress in 1946, and made a name for himself as an agressive anti-Communist serving on the House Un-American Activities Committee. Four years later at age 38, he was elected to the U.S. Senate. There he became an outspoken critic of President Truman’s conduct of the Korean War and wasteful spending by the Democrats. Nixon was then regarded as a good choice to run with Eisenhower. So in the fall of 1952, with six weeks to go until the national elections, the Republicans appeared to be set with their ticket.
Nixon in some consternation after September 1952 meeting with Ike. Senator William Knowland is at right.
But then on September 18th, 1952, the New York Post ran the front-page headline: “Secret Nixon Fund,” with a detailed story and second headline inside the paper that read: “Secret Rich Men’s Trust Fund Keeps Nixon in Style Far Beyond His Salary.” The newspaper story charged that wealthy Californians had given $18,235 to a secret campaign fund for Nixon in return for political favors. Other newspapers picked up the story. The New York Herald Tribune called on Nixon to withdraw from the Republican ticket. Some Republican party leaders asked him to resign. The secret fund, in turned out, was for political purposes and was perfectly legal. But the impression created by the stories was that Nixon was on the take; being paid to do the bidding of special interests.
Eisenhower was not happy with the story, having been critical of the Truman Administration for corruption during the campaign. Privately, it was said that Ike thought it might be a good thing if Nixon took himself off the ticket. But others, including Nixon supporter and former New York governor and presidential candidate Thomas Dewey, suggested that Nixon use the new medium of television to respond to the charges. Eisenhower agreed, advising Nixon: “Tell the country everything you have ever received, how much money you have earned, what it’s been used for, what your worth is.”
Nixon on TV making his case.
National politicians then had not used television for such purposes, but Nixon needed to clear his name and do it quickly as the Republican ticket was at stake. So the Republicans put up $75,000 to buy 30 minutes of prime-time television for Nixon to plead his case. Nixon hired an advertising agency to help produce the live broadcast. The ad agency brought in soap opera directors from Hollywood for advice and also rounded up the best make-up artists and prop men to assist with the broadcast.
The speech was broadcast nationwide on September 23, 1952 from the El Capitan Theater in Hollywood where TV stage crews built a mock middle-class den with desk and fake library as part of the set. Nixon would address a combined TV and radio audience that included a network of some 64 NBC televison stations,194 CBS radio stations, and the 560 stations in the Mutual Broadcasting network. In 1952, about 40 percent of the nation’s homes had television sets and about 80 percent had radios. It would be one of the first political uses of television to appeal directly to the populace.
Nixon standing in his studio-made office during his Sept 1952 'Checkers' speech.
In the speech, Nixon began seated at a desk, with his wife Pat nearby, sitting in a parlor chair. The camera focused mostly on Nixon, who also stood up and walked close to the desk at one point. In his talk, Nixon made clear that he “wasn’t a rich man,” laying out some family history, describing his father’s grocery store and his own experiences working his way through law school. Nixon denied any wrongdoing with regard to the fund, citing an independent audit that cleared him of any malfeasance. The money, he asserted, did not come to him as income, but rather as reimbursement for expenses. He also gave a complete financial history of his personal assets, finances and debts, including his mortgages, life insurance, and loans. He went into great personal detail, saying for example, he owned a 1950 Oldsmobile, had two houses with mortgages, and was making regular payments on a $3,500 loan from his parents. This litany painted Nixon and his family as living an austere lifestyle.
Nixon’s wife, Pat, on the set during speech, was also shown in some camera shots.
“Well, that’s about it,” he said, summing up the financial disclosures. “That’s what we have and that’s what we owe. It isn’t very much, but Pat and I have the satisfaction that every dime that we’ve got is honestly ours. I should say this – that Pat doesn’t have a mink coat. But she does have a respectable Republican cloth coat.” Then came the Checkers part of the speech, which Nixon would later say came from his memory of Franklin Roosevelt’s swipe a critical press corps who would soon be attacking his dog, Fala. Checkers was given to Nixon as a gift, and Nixon explained it this way: “One other thing I probably should tell you…. We did get something – a gift – after the election. A man in Texas heard Pat on the radio mention the fact that our two youngsters would like to have a dog. . . . We got a message from the Union Station in Baltimore saying they had a package for us. . . . You know what it was? It was a little cocker spaniel in a crate. . . . Black and white, spotted. And our little girl, Tricia, the six year old, named it Checkers. And you know, the kids, like all kids, love the dog and I just want to say this right now, that regardless of what they say about it, we’re gonna keep it.”
Nixon also turned the speech back on the Democrats, and challenged Democratic Presidential candidate Adlai Stevenson to give a similar public account of his finances. He also attacked alleged corruption in the Truman administration and labeled Truman’s foreign policy a failure that had led to the Korean War. He ended by appealing directly to the public, urging his listeners and viewers to telegraph or write the Republican National Committee on whether he should remain the Vice-Presidential nominee.
Nixon with Pat, daughters & Checkers.
When the speech ended it was unclear what the response would be, though there were reportedly some in the studio who were moved to tears over Nixon’s “plain folks” disclosures and the Checkers story. Nixon himself thought he had failed. However, he did get an early telephone call from Hollywood movie producer Daryl Zanuck giving his speech a rave review. But the national press was not as generous. Nixon, said the New York Post, had indulged in “a private soap opera” in which “the corn overshadowed the drama.” The New York Times charged that Nixon made no acknowledgment “that he had made any sort of mistake in accepting these funds in the first place.” But the voters reacted much differently. They were moved by Nixon’s distress and his candor. As soon as Nixon went off the air, telegrams began pouring into the Republican Party’s national headquarters, the effect of which would not be revealed to Nixon or the nation for a day or so. It turned out that the mail was hugely in Nixon’s favor. By one count, some three million letters and two million telegrams came in. The New York Daily Mirror of September 25, 1952 had a large front page photo showing an aide working behind piles of letters and telegrams with the headline, “Nixon Wires Swamp GOP.” The Herald Tribune, which had called for Nixon’s resignation from the ticket only days before, now pronounced him “fully vindicated.” On the campaign trail a day or two later in West Virginia, Eisenhower greeted Nixon warmly as it was clear by then that Nixon had helped himself and the Republican ticket going into the national elections.
Nixon on TV during his Checkers speech.
Nearly 60 million people had watched Nixon on television, which was half the total number of potential viewers and the largest TV audience ever until the 1960 Kennedy/Nixon debate eight years later. Radio was still an important source for news and the day’s politics, with 70 percent of voters getting their information from radio. The Mutual radio network estimated that nine out of ten radio homes had their sets tuned to Nixon’s speech. But the election of 1952 would be the last modern campaign when more voters got their candidate information from radio. Still, in this instance it was television that helped Nixon clear his name and regain his political footing. And in the process, Nixon discovered that he could use television to ignore the print media.
Halberstam on Nixon
Journalist David Halberstam, writing years later about the Checker’s speech in his book The Powers That Be, made the following observations about the speech and how it changed Nixon’s thinking about the national media. Halberstam relies here on one of Nixon’s aides, Ted Rogers, who had worked with Nixon since the days of his 1950 Senate campaign:
. . .On the famous Checkers speech, . . .Rogers had his doubts about putting Pat Nixon on [the set] that night, thinking it might be improper. But Nixon insisted. It was, Rogers thought, as if it were the Nixons against the world. In her husband’s mind, her honor and reputation had been attacked just as his own had been. Rogers had no idea what Nixon was going to say that night, and when the speech was over, with Nixon bursting into tears at the end, deeply moved by his own words, Rogers, like many others, thought it masterful. It had clearly saved Nixon’s place on the ticket, and it had turned the flow of the campaign around.
But there were doubts about it later. It was as if somehow in saving himself, Nixon had paid too high a price. He had made himself even more the issue – not his politics, but himself. . . . From then on. . . Nixon became an electronic candidate. . . . [H]e did not care much about the writing press. . . He had done it his way, with no impertinent questions and answers at the end. Suddenly, television was magic. . . . There was a growing feeling among the political and journalistic taste makers of the country that Nixon was not quite acceptable for very high office. He had gone just a little too far. (The taste makers sensed that perhaps Dwight Eisenhower shared their opinion, although Ike welcomed Nixon back on the ticket.) . . . .
There was something else that Rogers noticed about the Checkers speech – the powerful impact it had, not just on the nation and not just on Eisenhower, but on Nixon himself. From then on, as far as Rogers was concerned, Nixon became an electronic candidate. He had an immediate consciousness of the power of television. From then on, he did not care much about the writing press (though he liked reporters of all sorts less and less). He had done it his way, with no impertinent questions and answers at the end. Suddenly television was magic. Rogers, who liked much of the writing press, noticed immediately Nixon’s changed attitude toward reporters. Up until then he had been very cautious and solicitous in the care and feeding of reporters, and reasonably accessible. But from then on it changed. If the [campaign] bus was ready to roll and they weren’t there, he’d simply say, “F___ ‘em, we don’t need them.” The Checkers episode had taught Nixon first that the national press was potentially antagonistic and harmful to him, personally, and second that he could go over their heads.”
Dwight D. Eisenhower & Richard M. Nixon on November 4, 1952, after winning the national election. (AP photo.)
That fall, the Eisenhower-Nixon ticket crushed the Democrats’ Adlai Stevenson – John Sparkman ticket. Richard M. Nixon would be Vice President of the United States for the next eight years. Television had helped Richard Nixon weather the storm that nearly led to his removal from the Republican ticket. But television for Nixon would not always prove to be the beneficent saviour it had been in this case, as he would later discover in the first televised presidential debates of 1960 with Democrat John F. Kennedy.
See History.com video story on Nixon & his Checkers Speech narrated by Roger Mudd, which is preceded by short commercial and runs into other segments on the Nixon presidency.
“Nixon Blames Smear For Fund Revelation; Nixon Should Withdraw,” Washington Post, September 20, 1952, p. 1.
James Reston, “Eisenhower Backs Nixon on Ticket,” New York Times, Saturday, September 20, 1952, p. 1.
Edward T. Folliard, “Ike Wants to Know His Running Mate Is Morally Clear Before Closing Case,” Washington Post, September 21, 1952, p. M-1.
Associated Press, “Eisenhower to Make Up Mind After Nixon Speech Tonight,” Washington Post, September 23, 1952, p. 1.
Gladwin Hill, ” ‘I’m Not a Quitter’; Senator Says He’ll Let Republican National Committee Decide; Nixon Puts Fate Up to G. O. P. Chiefs,” New York Times, Wednesday, September 24, 1952, p. 1.
“Nixon Wires Swamp GOP,” Daily Mirror (NY, NY), September 25, 1952, p. 1.
“G. O. P. Heads Rally to Nixon’s Support; Summerfield Asserts Attack Has ‘Backfired’ — Senator’s Position Held Stronger,” New York Times, Thursday, September 25, 1952, p. 1.
Dent Williams, “Ike Declares Nixon Will Remain After Face-to-Face Meeting Here; City Roars Out Huge Ovation as General Says Nixon Okay,” Wheeling Intelligencer (Wheeling, West Virginia), September 25, 1952, p. 1.
James A. Hagerty, “Nixon’s Speech ‘Shot in Arm’ To the G. O. P., Survey Finds,” New York Times, Monday, September 29, 1952, p. 1.
“Nixon Family Turns Back Flood of Cash,” Washington Post, October 2, 1952, p. 3.
Drew Pearson, “Questions Nixon Hasn’t Answered,” Washington Post, October 30, 1952, p. 41.
David LaGesse, “The 1952 Checkers Speech: The Dog Carries the Day for Richard Nixon, U.S. News & World Report, usnews.com, January 17, 2008.
Joe Garner, Stay Tuned: Television’s Unforgettable Moments, Kansas City: Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2002, pp. 60-63.
Paul Newman, one of many notable Hollywood stars who became active on behalf of presidential candidates during 1968's primary & general elections. Life magazine, May 10, 1968.
In 1968, celebrity participation in the presidential primary and general elections of the United States reached a level that had not been seen in some years. This participation was more prominent among Democrats perhaps, but was also a factor in the Republican races. Many in Hollywood and the arts community had been wary of political activism after experiencing the communist witch-hunts of the late 1940s and 1950s. Congressional hearings, loyalty oaths, and Hollywood blacklists during that period had terrorized actors, producers, musicians, and others, wrecking careers and ruining lives.
Yet in the 1960s, the caldron of social issues and political unrest throughout the country, coupled in 1967-68 with an offering of hopeful candidates – especially on the Democratic side — brought both older and newer Hollywood celebrities into the political process like never before. “In no other election,” observed Time magazine in late May 1968, “have so many actors, singers, writers, poets, artists, professional athletes and assorted other celebrities signed up, given out and turned on for the candidates.”
A war was then raging in Vietnam and a military draft was taking the nation’s young to fight it. President Lyndon Johnson had raised U.S. troop strength in Vietnam to 486,000 by the end of 1967. Protests had erupted at a number of colleges and universities. In late October 1967, tens of thousands of demonstrators came to the Pentagon calling for an end to the war. In addition, a growing civil rights movement had pointed up injustice and racism throughout America. Three summers of urban unrest had occurred. Riots in 1967 alone had taken more than 80 lives. In the larger society, a counter culture in music, fashion and values – brought on by the young – was also pushing hard on convention. And all of this, from Vietnam battle scenes to federal troops patrolling U.S. cities, was seen on television as never before. Society seemed to be losing its moorings. And more was yet to come, as further events – some traumatic and others unexpected – would fire the nation to the boiling point. There was little standing on the sidelines; people from all walks of life were taking sides.
From left, Sidney Poitier, Harry Belafonte & Charlton Heston at 1963 Civil Rights march.
Hollywood and the arts community had a long history of political involvement and activism on behalf of presidential candidates, dating at least to the 1920s. Even in the dark days of the 1950s there had been a sizeable swath of Hollywood backing Democrat Adlai Stevenson for his Presidential bids of 1952 and 1956. And in the 1960 election of Jack Kennedy, there was notable support from Frank Sinatra and friends, as well as Kennedy family connections to Hollywood. Others, like singer Pete Seeger, had never stopped their activism, even in the face of political pressure. By the early 1960s, with the civil rights movement in particular, a new wave actors and singers such as Joan Baez, Harry Belefonte, Marlon Brando, Bob Dylan, Charlton Heston, Sidney Poitier, Paul Newman and others were becoming involved in one way or another. Some lent their name or provided financial support; others joined marches and demonstrations. By the mid-1960s, however, the Vietnam War became a goading factor for many in Hollywood. And among the first to speak out and oppose the war was an actor named Robert Vaughn.
TV actor Robert Vaughn led early Hollywood opposition to the Vietnam War.
The Man from UNCLE
Robert Vaughn was the star of a popular primetime TV spy series called The Man From U.N.C.L.E., which ran from September 1964 to mid-January 1968. Vaughn was among the first to criticized President Lyndon B. Johnson on the Vietnam war – and he did so very publicly in a January 1966 speech. In Indianapolis, at a dinner given to support Johnson’s re-election, Vaughn spoke out against the war and LBJ’s policy there. “Everyone at the front table had hands over their eyes,” Vaughn later explained when asked about the reaction. Vaughn became worried about the Vietnam War after immersing himself in all the documents, books and articles he could find on the subject. “I can talk for six hours about the mistakes we have made,” he told one reporter in 1966. “We have absolutely no reason to be in Viet Nam-legal, political or moral.”
In late March 1966, Vaughn went to Washington to meet with politicians. He lunched with Senator Frank Church (D-ID) and also had a lengthy meeting with Senator Wayne Morse (D-OR) to discuss the war. He told the press then “the Hollywood community is very much against” the Vietnam War. “[T]he Hollywood com- munity is very much against” the Vietnam War. – Robert Vaughn, March 1966. But wasn’t it risky for a star to be so outspoken, he was asked? “I’ve had nothing but encouragement from my friends in the industry, from the studio, even the network,” he said. On his visit to Washington that weekend Vaughn was a house guest of Bobby Kennedy’s at Hickory Hill in nearby Virginia. He continued to be visible in the Vietnam debate, appearing as a guest on William F. Buckley’s TV talk show, Firing Line. He also engaged in impromptu debate with Vice President Hubert Humphrey on a live Minneapolis talk show. At the peak of Vaughn’s popularity, he was asked by the California Democratic Party to oppose fellow actor, Republican Ronald Reagan, then running for California governor in the 1966 election. Vaughn, however, supported Democrat Edmund G. Brown, who lost in a landslide to Reagan.
Vaughn would continue to oppose the war, leading a group called Dissenting Democrats. By early 1968, Vaughn supported the emerging anti-war presidential candidate Senator Eugene McCarthy (D-MN), then running for his party’s nomination. (Vaughn had later planned to switch to Robert Kennedy, a close friend, if Kennedy won the June 1968 California primary).
McCarthy at 1968 campaign rally in Wisconsin.
Gene McCarthy had announced his candidacy for the White House on November 30, 1967. Opposing the war was the main issue for McCarthy, who had been prodded to run by anti-war activists. On the Republican side, former vice President Richard Nixon announced his candidacy in January 1968. And on February 8th, Alabama’s Democratic Governor George Wallace – the segregationist who in June 1963 had stood at the doors of the University of Alabama to block integration – entered the presidential race as an Independent.
McCarthy attracted some of the more liberal Democrats in Hollywood, including those who had been for Adlai Stevenson in the 1950s. “…[H]e’s the man who expresses discontent with dignity,” actor Eli Wallach would say of McCarthy in 1968. Wallach had won a Tony Award in 1951 for his role in the Tennessee Williams play The Rose Tattoo and also became famous for his role as Tuco the “ugly” in the 1966 film The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. Wallach liked the fact that McCarthy had taken “a firm position on the war in Vietnam.” Wallach and his wife Anne Jackson, a stage actress, were among those who held fundraisers and poetry readings for McCarthy. Actress Myrna Loy was another McCarthy supporter. She had played opposite William Powell, Clark Gable, Melvyn Douglas, and Tryone Power in films of the 1930s and 1940s. Loy was a lifelong activist who had supported Adlai Stevenson in 1952 and 1956. In 1968, she became a stalwart for McCarthy, making personal campaign appearances for him and hosting fundraisers. But perhaps the most important Hollywood star to come out for McCarthy was Paul Newman.
The Paul Newman Factor
Paul Newman at 1968 fundraiser.
Paul Newman was then among Hollywood’s most popular actors, and among its top five box office draws. By 1968, he had appeared in more than a dozen major films and had a following of both older and younger Americans. Among his films, for example, were: Somebody Up There Likes Me (1956), as boxer Rocky Graziano; Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958), opposite Elizabeth Taylor; and The Young Philadelphians (1959). He also appeared with his wife Joanne Woodward in several films including: The Long, Hot Summer (1958), Rally ‘Round the Flag, Boys!, (1958), From the Terrace (1960), Paris Blues (1961), and A New Kind of Love (1963). Other signature films of Newman’s in the 1960s were: Exodus (1960), TheHustler (1961), Hud (1963), Harper (1966), Hombre (1967), and Cool Hand Luke (1967). Along with Joanne Woodward, Newman took time away from his profession during 1968 to work months at a time for McCarthy. He made numerous campaign appearances for McCarthy throughout the country during the Democratic primaries and also became a McCarthy delegate to the Democratic convention.
Campaigning by Newman at a McCarthy rally in Menominee Falls, Wisconsin, 1968.
Newman’s support for McCarthy – like many others – was largely because of the Vietnam War. McCarthy, however, was not well known outside of the U.S. Senate in Washington D.C. and his home state of Minnesota. In addition to actively campaigning for McCarthy, Newman was also filmed in political ads for the candidate, and emceed a telethon to raise money for McCarthy that had been quite successful. But it was Newman’s early help in the New Hampshire primary that was particularly important for McCarthy – especially given the results and the political fallout that followed. In fact, some credit Newman with raising McCarthy’s visibility enough to enable him to make the strong showing he did in New Hampshire – a showing which later affected decisions by both Lyndon Johnson and Bobby Kennedy.
Newman made campaign appearances in New Hampshire during February and March 1968, some with wife Joanne Woodward. Tony Randall and Rod Serling also made appearances for McCarthy in New Hampshire. But it was Newman who drew the crowds and notice by the press. In March 1968, Newman went to Claremont, New Hampshire to campaign for McCarthy. Tony Podesta, then a young MIT student, was Newman’s campaign contact. Podesta worried that day that only a few people might show up to hear Newman. Some credit Paul Newman with raising McCarthy’s visibility in New Hamp- shire, enabling his strong showing there. Instead, more than 2,000 people came out to mob Newman. “I didn’t come here to help Gene McCarthy,” Newman would say to his listeners that day. “I need McCarthy’s help.”
“Until that point,” said Podesta, “McCarthy was some sort of a quack not too many people knew about, but as soon as Paul Newman came to speak for him, he immediately became a national figure.” In New Hampshire, the Manchester Union Leader newspaper published a political cartoon showing Newman being followed by McCarthy with the caption: “Who’s the guy with Paul Newman?” Author Darcy Richardson would later write in A Nation Divided: The Presidential Election of 1968, that Newman’s visit to the state “caused a great stir and drew considerable attention to McCarthy’s candidacy.” New Republic columnist Richard Stout, attributing honesty and conviction to Newman’s New Hampshire campaigning, wrote that the actor “had the star power McCarthy lacked, and imperceptibly was transferring it to the candidate.” Barbara Handman, who ran The Arts & Letters Committee for McCarthy, would later put it more plainly: “Paul turned the tide for McCarthy. . . Paul put him on the map — he [ McCarthy] started getting national coverage by the press. He started being taken seriously.”
New Hampshire Earthquake
On March 12, 1964, McCarthy won 42 percent of the vote in New Hampshire to Lyndon Johnson’s 49 percent, a very strong showing for McCarthy and an embarrassment for Johnson. McCarthy’s campaign now had a new legitimacy and momentum that would have a cascading effect on decisions that both Lyndon Johnson and Bobby Kennedy would make. Paul Newman, meanwhile, continued to campaign for McCarthy beyond New Hampshire and throughout the election year.
March 22, 1968 edition of Time magazine, reporting on McCarthy’s surprising showing in New Hampshire & the emerging Democratic fight.
McCarthy soon had a long list of luminaries supporting his run for the White House, including: Alan Arkin, Betty Comden, Melvyn Douglas, Adolf Green, Woody Allen, Carl Reiner, Barbra Streisand, Jill St. John, Darren McGavin, Eva Marie Saint, Burt Lancaster, Sonny Fox, Alan Jay Lerner, Dick Van Dyke, and Leonard Nemoy. Bette Davis was also a McCarthy supporter and served as hostess for some of his functions. Playwright Arthur Miller, and author William Styron were also active for McCarthy as were folk singers Peter, Paul & Mary. Some of the famous names would also participate in what were then called “Eugene cabarets”– fundraising, entertain- ment, and other gatherings held in New York, San Francisco, and other cities using an admission price to raise money for McCarthy. These events ranged from nightclub shows to poetry readings. One featured Elaine May doing comedy, another had social critic and cartoonist Jules Feiffer as the guest. In Los Angeles, a “Eugene cabaret” featured novelist William Styron, actor Ossie Davis, and writer James Baldwin in a debate on Styron’s novel, The Confessions of Nat Turner. In later months, the “Eugene cabarets” would be contributing $11,500 a week to McCarthy’s campaign. And there would be larger events too. In mid-May 1968, some 19,000 Eugene McCarthy supporters attended a star-studded event at New York City’s Madison Square Garden. Playwright Neil Simon along with comedians Tony Randall and Larry Blyden performed a satirical skit spoofing Johnson and Humphrey, along with other events. The entertainers that night raised $300,000 for McCarthy. But it was the New Hampshire primary that had sent McCarthy on his way. Also important for McCarthy in New Hampshire had been the college kids who came “clean for Gene” and gave endless hours to his campaign. However, in the wake of McCarthy’s surprise showing in New Hampshire, came Bobby Kennedy.
Bobby Kennedy, 1968.
Kennedy In, LBJ Out
On March 16th, four days after the New Hampshire primary showed Lyndon Johnson to be vulnerable and McCarthy viable, Bobby Kennedy jumped into the race, angering many McCarthy supporters. Kennedy had agonized over whether to enter the race for months, and in fact, McCarthy and supporters had gone to Kennedy in 1967 to urge him to run. McCarthy then decided to enter the race after it appeared Kennedy was not going to run. But once Kennedy entered the race, he and McCarthy engaged in an increasingly heated and sometimes bitter contest for the nomination.
In 1968, however, party leaders still had a great deal of influence in the nominating process and the selection of delegates. Primaries then were less important and fewer in number than they are today. Still, a strong showing in certain primaries could create a bandwagon effect and show the party establishment that a particular candidate was viable. In 1960, John Kennedy helped get the party’s attention when he defeated Hubert Humphrey in the West Virginia primary. Now in 1968, Gene McCarthy had the party’s attention.
Lyndon Johnson's surprise announcement of March 31, 1968 made headlines across the country.
Robert Kennedy would have to defeat McCarthy and President Johnson in every primary that he could then still enter. Among the primaries then available were: Indiana and Washington, D.C. on May 7th; Nebraska on May 14th; Oregon on May 28th; California and South Dakota on June 4th; and New York on June 18th. But then unexpectedly, following Kennedy’s announcement less than two weeks later, came another jolt for the party. Lyndon Johnson, a sitting president and the presumed nominee of his party, stunned the nation by announcing on national television that he would not accept nor seek the Democratic presidential nomination. Johnson, among other things, had seen polling data from the then-pending Wisconsin primary showing McCarthy in the lead, which on April 2nd McCarthy would win with 56 percent of the vote to LBJ’s 35 percent.
King shot, April 4, 1968.
On April 4th, 1968, several days after LBJ’s bombshell, the nation was ripped apart by news that civil rights leader Martin Luther King had been assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. In the next few days, dozens of American cities erupted in violence.
RFK at scene of his famous speech in Indianapolis the evening Martin Luther King died. AP Photo/Leroy Patton, Indianapolis News.
Robert Kennedy, who had then begun his campaign, had arrived in Indiana on April 4th to begin some campaigning there for the upcoming primary. On a flight from Muncie to Indianapolis, he learned that civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., had been shot, and before landing heard that King had died. Despite warnings from Indianapolis police that they could not guarantee his safety, Kennedy decided to proceed with plans to address an outdoor rally to be held in the heart of the city’s African American community. On that cold and windy evening, Kennedy broke the news of King’s death in an impassioned, extemporaneous speech on the need for compassion in the face of violence. It has proven to be one of the great speeches in American political history. Although a number of cities erupted with riots following King’s death, Indianapolis did not. Political campaigns, meanwhile, were suspended for about a week as the nation mourned King’s death.
By the end of April, the nation was boiling on other fronts, too. Student protesters at Columbia University in New York City took over the administration building on April 23rd and shut down the campus. On the campaign trail, McCarthy won the April 23rd Pennsylvania primary, and a few days later, on April 27th, Lyndon Johnson’s Vice President, former Minnesota senator Hubert Humphrey, formally announced he would seek the Democratic presidential nomination.
Vice President Hubert Humphrey enters the race for the Democratic nomination, April 1968.
Humphrey, however, was taking a distinctly different route to the nomination than McCarthy and Kennedy. Humphrey, for the most part, did not go the primary route, although he did have surrogates in a few states. Instead, Humphrey planned to use the “party machine” to gather his delegates and was the favored establishment candidate.
Lyndon Johnson would also help Humphrey, but mostly from behind the scenes since Johnson was regarded a liability for any candidate given his Vietnam record. Meanwhile, on the campaign trail, a showdown of sorts was brewing between Kennedy and McCarthy as the May 7th Indiana primary approached.
Celebs for McCarthy
In April and early May of 1968, there was a lot of campaigning in Indiana, and star power was again at work with celebrities helping McCarthy. In April, Paul Newman was drawing large crowds in the state for McCarthy, where he made 15 appearances. At one of those stops, Newman explained from a tailgate of station wagon: “I am not a public speaker. I am not a politician. I’m not here because I’m an actor. I’m here because I’ve got six kids. I don’t want it written on my gravestone, ‘He was not part of his times.’ Also making appearances for McCarthy in Indiana were Simon & Garfunkel, Dustin Hoffman, Myrna Loy, and Gary Moore. The times are too critical to be dissenting in your own bathroom.” Newman continued campaigning for McCarthy through May 7 and was then still drawing crowds, with his own motorcade sometimes followed by cars of adoring fans.
Also making appearances for McCarthy in Indiana were actor Dustin Hoffman, singing duo Simon & Garfunkel, Myrna Loy, and TV host Gary Moore. Simon & Garfunkel sang at a McCarthy fundraiser at the Indiana State Fairgrounds Coliseum in May 1968, where Dustin Hoffman introduced them. Hoffman’s popular film at the time, The Graduate – filled with a Simon & Garfunkel soundtrack – was then still in theaters. This celebrity support for McCarthy, as Newman had shown in New Hampshire, was important for McCarthy. “When you have a candidate who is not as well known, and there’s no money so that you can’t by television time,” explained Barbara Handman, head of the Arts and Letters Committee for McCarthy, “these people [celebs] become more and more effective for us. They’re well-known drawing cards…” Handman had previously headed up similar committees for Jack Kennedy in 1960, and Lyndon Johnson in 1964. Her husband, Wynn Handman, was co-founder of the American Palace Theater. Both were well connected in Hollywood.
Celebs for Kennedy
Andy Williams, Robert Kennedy, Perry Como, Ted Kennedy, Eddie Fisher at unspecified 1968 fundraising telethon, Lisner Auditorium, G.W. University, Wash., D.C. (photo, GW University).
Robert Kennedy, a celebrity in his own right, would draw crowds like a rock star once his campaign got going – especially later in California. But even Kennedy had famous names on his side. After he announced his candidacy in March 1968, his campaign was deluged with offers of help from Hollywood – some 100 actors, directors and producers called offering their support. And in a blow to McCarthy, some of his early Hollywood supporters, such as Lauren Bacall, Kirk Douglas, Sammy Davis Jr., Candice Bergen, Rosemary Clooney, Andy Williams, and the rock ‘n roll group, Jefferson Airplane, now broke for Kennedy. Among other Hollywood and celebrity supporters working for Kennedy were: Warren Beatty, Bill Cosby, Tony Curtis, Bobby Darin, Henry Fonda, Jack Lemon, Shirley MacLaine, Malina Mercouri, Jack Parr, David Suskind, Nancy Wilson, Gene Kelly, Jack Lemon, Gregory Peck, and Rod Steiger. Sammy Davis, Jr., who was performing in Chicago in the spring of 1968 in Golden Boy, would campaign for Bobby on his days off at small colleges in the nearby states of Nebraska and Indiana. Filmmaker John Frankenheimer directed and produced ads for Robert Kennedy, and Kennedy also hired documentary filmmaker Charles Guggenheim to produce campaign films.
Bobby Kennedy campaigning in Indianapolis, May 1968. Behind Kennedy to the right, are NFL football stars Lamar Kundy, Rosey Grier and Deacon Jones. (photo by Bill Eppridge from his book, 'A Time It Was'.
Kennedy also had a number of professional athletes in his corner, including NFL football stars Lamar Lundy, Rosey Grier, and Deacon Jones and former prizefighter Tony Zale. Rafer Johnson, a 1960 Olympic gold medalist, headed an “Athlete’s for Kennedy” committee and often accompanied Kennedy on his tours through black communities.
Lesley Gore, a pop singer who by then had several Top 40 hits – including “It’s My Party” (1963), “You Don’t Own Me” (1964), “Sunshine, Lollipops & Rainbows” (1965), and “California Nights” (1967) — also became a Kennedy supporter. At 21 years old, and about to graduate from Sarah Lawrence College in Yonkers, New York, Gore became head of Kennedy’s effort to get young voters, called “First Voters for Kennedy.” She volunteered after she heard that Kennedy needed someone to attract young voters. “I understand there are 13 million first-time voters this year,” she told a New York Times reporter in early April 1968. “After my graduation next month I intend to give more of my time to visiting colleges and universities around the country.” In this effort, Gore would be traveling with actresses Candice Bergen and Patty Duke, and also the rock group, Jefferson Airplane.
Andy Williams, a friend and skiing companion to Kennedy, was also a key supporter. “I’m doing it because I think it important,” Williams told a New York Times reporter. “I am worried about the image of America. People don’t think Nixon is swell, and they don’t think Humphrey is swell. Bobby has star quality.” Williams would refurbish his guest house for use by the Kennedy family when Bobby campaigned in California.
Sinatra for Humphrey
Frank Sinatra & Hubert Humphrey, Washington, D.C., May 1968.
One entertainer noticeably absent from the Kennedy list was Frank Sinatra. Sinatra had backed JFK in 1960 but had a falling out with Jack Kennedy after that election. And as Attorney General, Bobby had initiated some actions against the Las Vegas gambling scene where Sinatra had friends and interests. Sinatra supported Vice President Hubert Humphrey for the nomination, and had met with Humphrey in Washington in early May, pledging to make campaign appearances for Humphrey in California and elsewhere. Sinatra headlined an Oakland, California gala for Humphrey and a delegate slate that opposed RFK in May. At the Oakland fundraiser, held on May 22, 1968, Sinatra gave an extensive live performance, which in recent years has been found on the web in various bootleg editions. Sinatra also performed for Humphrey at other events, including an early August 1968 gala at Cobo Hall in Detroit, and he also did a TV ad for Humphrey that fall.
During his campaign, Humphrey would gather additional Hollywood and celebrity supporters beyond Sinatra. Among these were some of the older and more established Hollywood names, sports stars, and other leading names, including actress Tallulah Bankhead, opera star Roberta Peters, jazz singer Sarah Vaughan, former heavyweight boxing champ Jack Dempsey, writer and naturalist Joseph Wood Krutch, and fashion designer Mollie Parnis.
Indiana & Beyond
A Gene McCarthy campaign celebration, 1968.
Back on the campaign trail, Kennedy won the Indiana primary on May 7th, and then defeated McCarthy in the Nebraska primary on May 14th. But McCarthy upset Kennedy in the Oregon primary on May 28th — the first time a Kennedy had ever lost a public election. After Kennedy’s defeat in Oregon, the California June 5th primary became the crucial showdown for Kennedy and McCarthy.
Both candidates campaigned vigorously throughout California, a winner-take-all contest with a large pot of delegates. McCarthy stumped the state’s colleges and universities, where he was recognized for being the first candidate to oppose the war. Kennedy campaigned in the ghettos and barrios of the state’s larger cities, where he was mobbed by enthusiastic supporters. A few days before the election, Kennedy and McCarthy also engaged in a televised debate – considered a draw.
On the east coast, meanwhile, and in New York city in particular, there was a star-studded celebrity fundraising rally for McCarthy in New York’s Madison Square Garden on May 19, 1968. One Canadian blogger, who as a teenager happened to be in New York city that weekend with a friend, recently wrote the following “forty-years-ago” remembrance of the event:
. . .Rob and I did many crazy things that weekend. . . .We learned that McCarthy was having a rally at Madison Square Garden on the Sunday night so along we went figuring we’d meet some more chicks. That event was awe inspiring.
All sorts of famous people spoke or performed that night. Paul Newman, Phil Ochs, Mary Tyler Moore to name a few. A new, young actor said a few words to the crowd on behalf of the candidate. We recognized him as the star of the ‘adult’ movie we had seen the night before. The movie was The Graduate and he was a very young Dustin Hoffman.
Celebrities walked thru the arena imploring people to donate to the campaign. Tony Randall came up our aisle and we gave him a couple of bucks. Stewart Mott (General Motors rich kid) stood up and donated $125,000 right there on the spot. The crowd was delirious. Sen. McCarthy spoke to the crowd and promised to take his fight against Sen. Kennedy all the way to the Chicago convention in August. It was pretty heady stuff for a 17 year-old from Toronto….
RFK campaigning in California.
On May 21, 1968, the Kennedy campaign in California unveiled its “Hollywood for Kennedy” committee. According to Joseph Palermo’s book, In His Own Right, this committee was chaired by singer Andy Williams, and included, among others: Lauren Bacall, Otto Preminger, Mahalia Jackson, Sidney Portier, Janet Leigh, Shelley Winters, Marlene Dietrich, Rita Hayworth, Kim Novak, Trini Lopez, Milton Berle, Henry Mancini, Elizabeth Montgomery, and Marlo Thomas. According to Palermo: “Kennedy could count on well-known actors and entertainers who shared his views on the war and on race relations.“…Kennedy’s enlistment of the Hollywood elite built on his family ties to the entertainment industry dating back to the 1920s…” - Joseph Palermo . . . A unique tactical alliance developed between California’s exorbitantly wealthy celebrity class, and some of the poorest, most dispossessed people of the state. Kennedy’s enlistment of the Hollywood elite built on his family ties to the entertainment industry dating back to the 1920s, and helped craft the image that he might restore to the White House some of the glamour of Camelot.” Michael Harrington, author of The Other America, also campaigned for Kennedy in California, as did John Fell Stevenson, the son of Adlai Stevenson. The Kennedy campaign also organized two star-studded “Kennedy for President” galas, one at the Los Angeles Sports Arena on May 24, the other at the San Francisco Civic Auditorium on June 1st. These were nationally-televised events that gave Kennedy added exposure.
Robert Kennedy campaigning.
On June 4, the day of the California primary, after a grueling campaign of some 85 days to that point, Kennedy rested with his wife Ethel and six of their children at the Malibu, California home of movie director and friend, John Frankenheimer. Late in the day, Frankenheimer brought Kennedy to the campaign’s election night headquarters at the Ambassador Hotel. In a suite there, Kennedy awaited the results in the company of friends and supporters, among them, Andy Williams, Shirley MacLaine, Rafer Johnson, and Milton Berle.
Four hours after the polls closed in California, Kennedy claimed victory as he addressed his campaign supporters just past midnight in the Ambassador Hotel. On his way through the kitchen to exit the hotel, he was mortally wounded by assassin Sirhan Sirhan. His death became yet another of 1968′s convulsing events. Seen as an emerging beacon of hope in a dismal time, many had pinned their hopes on Kennedy and took his loss very personally. The Democratic party went into a tailspin as a stunned nation grieved. Thousands lined the tracks as Kennedy’s funeral train moved from New York City to Washington D.C. Millions watched his funeral on television. At the request of Bobby’s wife, Ethel, Andy Williams sang the “Battle Hymn of the Republic” at Kennedy’s funeral.
New York Times headlines, June 5, 1968.
Kennedy had defeated McCarthy in California, 46 percent to 42 percent. Kennedy’s team believed that by winning California, he would knock McCarthy out of the race and set up a one-on-one contest against Hubert Humphrey at the national convention that August. Kennedy had also planned to woo Humphrey delegates before the convention. Still, Kennedy was in second place overall after the California primary, with 393 delegates compared to Humphrey’s 561. McCarthy then held 258 delegates. McCarthy was aiming for the New York primary, where he had support from antiwar activists in New York City.
Historians and journalists have disagreed about Kennedy’s chances for the nomination had he not been assassinated. Michael Beschloss believes it unlikely that Kennedy could have secured the nomination since most of the delegates were then uncommitted and yet to be chosen at the Democratic convention. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. and author Jules Witcover have argued that Kennedy’s broad appeal and charisma would have given him the nomination at the convention. And still others add that Kennedy’s experience in his brother’s presidential campaign, plus a potential alliance with Chicago mayor Richard Daley at the Democratic Convention, might have helped him secure the nomination.
Leading up to Democratic convention in Chicago, former Kennedy supporters tried to sort out what had happened and whether and how they would line up with other candidates. George Plimpton, a well known New Yorker and journalist who authored the 1963 book Paper Lion, had been a Kennedy supporter. He was with Kennedy the night he was assassinated in the Ambassador Hotel kitchen, walking in front of him. In New York, on August 14, 1968, Plimpton sponsored a party at the Cheetah nightclub on behalf of McCarthy supporters, along with co-sponsor William Styron, author of the The Confessions of Nat Turner. Henry Fonda was scheduled to host a McCarthy rally in Houston. “I started out with Senator Kennedy,” explained Fonda to a New York Times reporter, “Now I think McCarthy is the best choice on the horizon.” McCarthy supporters had other rallies and fundraisers scheduled in 24 other cities for mid-August ahead of the Chicago convention, including one at New York’s Madison Square Garden that included conductor Leonard Bernstein and singer Harry Belafonte. Hubert Humphrey’s campaign also had fundraisers, including one in early August at Detroit’s Cobo Hall with performances by Frank Sinatra, Trini Lopez, and comedian Pat Henry.
Humphrey campaign poster.
Trini Lopez, a popular singer in the 1960s who had more than a dozen pop and adult contemporary hit songs, including 1963′s “If I Had A Hammer,” worked vigorously for Humphrey in August1968. Lopez postponed an opening at Harrah’s nightclub in Las Vegas to travel with Humphrey and help him with younger voters. Humphrey also made pre-convention campaign appearances with other music celebrities, including one with singer James Brown in the Watts section of Los Angeles, where Humphrey targeted “black business ownership” as the subject of his pitch, but also, after Brown’s prompting, did a little “soft shoe” Boogaloo with the singer. On the California television show It’s Happening, Humphrey chatted with the leader of the rock group, Paul Revere and The Raiders, attempting to reach younger voters.
By mid-August 1968, “Entertainers for Humphrey” included Hollywood names such as Bill Dana, Victor Borge, Alan King, and George Jessel. There were also more than 80 other luminaries in a somewhat less well-known “arts & letters” group including: classical pianist Eugene Istomin, author and scholar Ralph Ellison, violin virtuoso Isaac Stern, manager/impresario Sol Hurok, playwright Sidney Kingsley, opera singer Robert Merrill, authors John Steinbeck, James T. Farrel, and Herman Wouk, and dancer Carmen de Lavallade. Humphrey had also picked up some former supporters of Republican Nelson Rockefeller, including architect Philip Johnson and dancer Maria Tallchief. But Humphrey’s biggest challenges were directly ahead at the Democratic National Convention.
National Guardsmen at the Conrad Hilton Hotel at the Democratic National Convention.
Turmoil in Chicago
As the 1968 Democratic National Convention opened in Chicago on August 26, 1968, there was a fractured party and little agreement on the main platform issue, the Vietnam War. In addition to the formal business of the presidential nomination inside the convention hall, there was a huge focus on the convention location as a protest venue for the Vietnam War, as thousands of young activists had come to Chicago. But Chicago’s Democratic Mayor Richard J. Daley – also the political boss running the convention – had prepared for anything, and had the Chicago police and the National Guard ready for action. Tensions soon came to a head.
Convention floor, 1968.
The convention became a national spectacle – both inside the hall and outside in the streets – and one of the most violent political scenes in American history. And much of it was played out on prime-time television. Americans were shocked to see Chicago police brutally beating anti-war protesters in the streets. Tear gas used to disperse the protesters wafted into hotel suites of delegates and even that of candidate Humphrey. At the convention itself, Chicago mayor Richard Daley was blamed for the police clubbings in the streets. Daley at one point was seen on television angrily cursing Senator Abraham Ribicoff of Connecticut, who had made a speech denouncing the excesses of the Chicago police. Inside the hall, CBS News reporter Dan Rather was attacked on the floor of the convention while covering the proceedings.
Haynes Johnson, a reporter who then covered the convention for the Washington Post , has recently written: “The 1968 Chicago convention became a lacerating event, a distillation of a year of heartbreak, assassinations, riots and a breakdown in law and order that made it seem as if the country were coming apart. In its psychic impact, and its long-term political consequences, it eclipsed any other such convention in American history, destroying faith in politicians, in the political system, in the country and in its institutions. No one who was there, or who watched it on television, could escape the memory of what took place before their eyes.”
Paul Newman & Arthur Miller at convention.
A number of Hollywood activists and celebrities who had campaigned for various candidates attended the convention – some as formal delegates. Paul Newman and playwright Arthur Miller, for example, came as McCarthy delegates from Connecticut. Television coverage of the convention not only captured the action of the formal proceedings and some of the violence in the streets, but also did interviews with various pundits and some of the attending celebrities. ABC News of August 28, 1968, for example, included short interviews with Paul Newman, Tony Randall, Gore Vidal, and Shirley MacLaine. Sonny Bono – of the famed “Sonny & Cher” rock star duo – had come to Chicago to propose a plank in the Democratic platform for a commission to look into the generation gap, or as he saw it, the potential problem of “duel society.” Bono, then 28, would become a Republican Congressman in the 1990s. Dinah Shore made a brief convention appearance for McCarthy, singing her famous “See The USA in Your Chevrolet” anthem, adapting it as, “Save The USA, the McCarthy Way, America is the Greatest Land of All,” throwing her trademarked big kiss at the end.
Humphrey supporters, 1968 Democratic National Convention.
During the convention process, there had been some attempt to prevent Hubert Humphrey from getting the nomination. Robert Kennedy’s death had sent the already frayed Democratic Party into some disarray. Kennedy’s delegates had not united behind any single candidate: some went to McCarthy, some went to a late candidacy of Senator George McGovern of South Dakota, and others simply did not vote. The splintering of Bobby Kennedy’s supporters appeared to help Humphrey. And the Vietnam plank being considered was not supported by many liberals. At the convention, McCarthy would say that “if Senator Kennedy had not died, we would have this party under control on Vietnam.” And although McCarthy did not personally like Robert Kennedy and fought him bitterly in the primaries, he offered to support a make-shift plan to nominate his younger brother, Senator Ted Kennedy, on the first ballot. McCarthy was approached on the proposal by Stephen Smith, Kennedy’s brother-in-law, and McCarthy offered to throw all his weight to Ted Kennedy. McCarthy’s gesture was unexpected, but the Ted Kennedy effort faltered in any case. In the end, Humphrey beat McCarthy and McGovern on the first ballot. The convention then chose Senator Ed Muskie of Maine to be Humphrey’s running mate. But Time magazine would later report in its September 6th issue, showing the Humphrey-Muskie pairing on its cover, but with Mayor Daley in the background, “What was to have been remembered as the Democratic Convention that nominated Hubert Humphrey may go down in history instead as an event of rancor and rioting.”
Time cover Sept 6, 1968: Humphrey-Muskie ticket shadowed by Chicago.
Post-Chicago, a number of active Democrats, including various Hollywood supporters, were not happy with the choices before them. Walter Matthau called the Humphrey-Nixon face-off “a choice between strychnine and arsenic.” Paul Newman told a Time reporter he might need ”a month of serious drinking” before deciding on whether to support Humphrey actively. Newman did say, however, that he would cast his ballot for Humphrey. Steve Allen, also among McCarthy’s Hollywood supporters, lent his name to the Humphrey campaign as well.
Humphrey, for his part, attempted to reach out to Hollywood celebrities, as California would be a crucial state in the general election. Humphrey met with a number of celebrities during and after the convention, one of whom was Warren Beatty. Beatty in 1967 had directed and starred in the movie Bonnie & Clyde, a huge box office hit. Beatty had appeared in a number of earlier films as well, from Splendor in the Grass (1961) to Kaleidoscope (1966). Beatty reportedly offered to make a campaign film for Humphrey if he would agree to denounce the war in Vietnam, which Humphrey would not do. During September and October 1968, a number of Hollywood’s stars and celebrities came around to support Humphrey, with gala events and/or rallies such as one at the Lincoln Center for Performing Arts in New York in late September, and another at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles in late October.
Hollywood actor E.G. Marshall narrated a political ad for Hubert Humphrey in 1968 that pointedly raised doubts about opponents Nixon and Wallace.
There were also celebrities who helped Humphrey in television advertising, such as E. G. Marshall, a two-time Emmy Award-winning actor. Marshall played a lawyer named Lawrence Preston on a popular 1960s TV show, The Defenders and also co-starred in a famous 1957 movie 12 Angry Men. Marshall narrated a four-minute TV ad for Humphrey that contrasted Humphrey’s record versus that of opponents, Richard Nixon and George Wallace. In the ad, the authoritative and well-spoken Marshall stood by large, life-size photographs of each Wallace and Nixon, ticking off the problems of each candidate as he stood by their likeness. At the end, alongside of Humphrey’s photograph, after extolling his best qualities, Marshall concludes: “There is only one man of the three who trusts me, and who trusts you…. Now he is asking us to trust him… This is a time when a good man can become a great man. I believe in Hubert Humphrey, and I trust him. And God willing, he will be our next President.”
New York Times, 7 Nov 1968.
On November 5th in one of the closest elections in U.S. history, Nixon beat Humphrey by a slim margin. Although Nixon took 302 electoral votes to Humphrey’s 191, the popular vote was extremely close: Nixon at 31,375,000 to 31,125,000 for Humphrey, or 43.4 percent to 43.1 percent. Third party candidate George Wallace was a key factor in the race, taking more votes from Humphrey than Nixon, especially in the south and among union and working class voters in the north. Nearly 10 million votes were cast for Wallace, some 13.5 percent of the popular vote. He won five southern states and took 45 electoral votes. Democrats did retain control of the House and Senate, but the country was now headed in a more conservative direction. In the wake of their loss, the Democrats also reformed their presidential nominating process. As Kennedy and McCarthy supporters gained more power within the party, changes were adopted for the 1972 convention making the nominating process more democratic and raising the role of primary elections. Hubert Humphrey would become the last nominee of either major party to win the nomination without having to compete directly in primary elections.
Warren Beatty, who worked for Bobby Kennedy in 1968, continued his activism & political film making, flirting with a White House bid himself in 1999.
Many of the celebrities who worked for Democratic candidates in 1968 did not throw in the towel after that election. They came back in subsequent presidential election cycles to work for and support other Democrats ranging from George McGovern and Jimmy Carter to Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama. And some of 1968′s activists, and their successors, also continued that long history of Hollywood film-making that has focused on American politics as film subject. Among some of the post-1968 films that explored that realm, for example, were: The Candidate (1972, with Robert Redford, screenplay by Jeremy Larner, a Gene McCarthy speechwriter); All the President’s Men (1976, with Dustin Hoffman and Robert Redford); Wag The Dog, (1997, with Dustin Hoffman and Robert De Niro), Bullworth (1998, produced & directed by Warren Beatty who also plays the central character), and others.
And certainly by 1968, if not before, it had become clear that Hollywood and politics were intersecting in an increasing number of ways, especially in the packaging of candidates. Hollywood techniques were fast becoming political techniques. Hollywood personalities like Ronald Reagan and George Murphy were winning political office by then as well – Murphy taking a U.S. Senate seat as a California Republican in 1964, and Reagan elected in 1966 as California’s Republican Governor. Certainly by 1968, if not before, it had become clear that Hollywood and politics were intersecting in an increasing number of ways. Reagan, of course, would become president in 1980, and others from Hollywood, such as Warren Beatty, would also consider running for the White House in the year 2000.
Today, celebrities and Hollywood stars remain sought-after participants in elections and political causes of all kinds. Their money and endorsements are key factors as well. Yet polling experts and political pundits continue to debate the impact of celebrities on election outcomes, and many doubt their ability to sway voters. Still, in 1968, celebrity involvement was a factor and did affect the course of events, as every political candidate at that time sought the help of Hollywood stars and other famous names to advance their respective campaigns.
See also, “The 1968 Exhibit,” a traveling and online exhibit organized by the Minnesota History Center partnership with the Atlanta History Center, the Chicago History Museum and the Oakland Museum of California.