Note: This is the film trailer for 1983′s The Big Chill. It was updated in 1998,
the film’s 15th anniversary year, as part promo for the release of the remas-
tered DVD edition. The trailer offers a good, quick overview of the story
and its characters, plus a sampling of the excellent 1960s music used throug-
hout the film.
Story:The Big Chill is a film about eight former 1960s’ college friends who
gather for an unscheduled reunion following a friend’s untimely suicide. It’s
an introspective film featuring a weekend of soul searching by the group of
former college friends. The actual and metaphorical “big chill” in the film is
the death of their friend and their own “ten-years-later” reality check on what
each of them have or have not become since their college days. The cast in-
cludes: Glenn Close, William Hurt, Tom Berenger, Jeff Goldblum, Kevin Kline,
Meg Tilly, Mary Kay Place, and JoBeth Williams. For many baby boomers
who first saw it in 1983, it was the film’s soundtrack – an evocative collection
of original 1960s rock ‘n roll tunes – that was especially memorable and endur-
ing, becoming a best seller. And that fact was not lost on Madison Avenue.
“Big Chill Marketing” See related story at this website on how The Big Chill became something of a
landmark in the history of advertising, especially how the movie’s soundtrack
helped to spur the use of original, pre-existing rock songs in advertising – then
a relatively rare practice. The story also covers the making of the film, lists
the songs used throughout the film, and explores some of the history of music
use in advertising and marketing – from Coca-Cola’s use of pop music, to music
fans’ dismay over hearing their favorite songs used by product pitchmen.
Note: This video shows a March 1989 TV ad for Pepsi entitled “Make a Wish,”
featuring pop music star Madonna singing & dancing. This ad was subsequently
pulled after it generated controversy. See more on this story at link below.
Ad story: This Pepsi ad uses a flash-back storyline opening with Madonna
seated in a parlor watching an old black-and-white home movie of herself as
a young girl at a birthday party. The spot cuts back and forth between the
young Madonna and adult versions in sync with the music set to various dance
scenes – to the young girl in school, to more dancing in a street scene, back to
the girl a little older, another with Madonna dancing among joyful gospel singers,
and then finally to Madonna in the opening parlor scene watching the home
movie seated with a can of Pepsi. There she watches the 8 year-old Madonna
in the black-and-white film at her party, holding a 1950s Pepsi bottle and straw,
about to blow out the candles on her cake. Across the ages, the two Madonnas
toast each other with their respective Pepsis. Then Madonna says to the birth-
day girl, “Go ahead, make a wish.” With that, the little girl blows out the candles
and the film ends. Cut to Pepsi logo and slogan, “A Generation Ahead.”
Poster for the 1983 film, with subhead above that reads: 'The story of eight old friends searching for something they lost, and finding that all they needed was each other.' For many Baby Boomers who saw this film, the soundtrack was especially memorable, a fact not lost on Madison Avenue.
In September 1983, a movie named TheBig Chill was released — a story about eight former 1960s’ college friends who gather for an unscheduled reunion after a friend’s untimely suicide. The Columbia film was nominated for, but did not win, three academy awards, including Best Picture. The Big Chill did reasonably well at the box office and in its DVD afterlife and still has fans online today. But for many who first saw it in 1983, it was the film’s soundtrack – an evocative collec- tion of original 1960s rock ‘n roll tunes – that was especially memorable and enduring. In fact, the movie’s music became something of a key landmark in the history of advertising, as it would help to spur the use of original rock music in a myriad of advertising applications in the years that followed. Prior to The Big Chill, for the most part, popular rock musicians sang company jingles, or advertisers used copied versions of their songs, performed by imitators and studio groups. But after The Big Chill, there was a decided turn by Madison Avenue to use original rock ‘n roll songs, or portions of them, in all kinds of advertising. “…[T]he movie probably gave far too many ad agencies the notion to buy up the rights to 60s’ songs for use in pushing the nostalgia buttons of key-demographic consumers,” later wrote Ken Tucker in The New York Times. Indeed, by the mid-1980s oldies rock ‘n roll had reached vintage nostalgic value among middling Baby Boomers, who were then arriving by the millions in their full, prime-time spending years. And while it wasn’t the only factor, The Big Chill certainly helped persuade Madison Avenue to begin using original-track rock ‘n roll more prominently in their advertising. In fact, a few industry wags would call the practice “Big Chill advertising.”
Big Chill Music 1983 Soundtrack
“I Heard it Through the Grapevine” Marvin Gaye (1968, #1) “You Can’t Always Get What You Want” The Rolling Stones (1973, #42) “A Whiter Shade of Pale” Procol Harum (1967, #5) “Tracks of My Tears”(1965, #16)
Smokey Robinson & The Miracles “Wouldn’t it Be Nice”(1966, #8)
The Beach Boys “Tell Him” (1963, #4)
The Exciters “The Weight”(1968, #63)
The Band “Good Lovin’”(1966, #1)
The Rascals “Strangers in the Night” Instrumental “Gimme Some Lovin’”(1967, #7)
Spencer Davis Group “Bad Moon Rising” (1969, #2)
Creedence Clearwater Revival “Ain’t Too Proud to Beg”(1966, #13)
The Temptations “When a Man Loves a Woman”(‘66,#1)
Percy Sledge “A Natural Woman”(1967, #8)
Aretha Franklin “In the Midnight Hour” The Rascals “I Second That Emotion”(1967, #4)
Smokey Robinson & The Miracles “Joy to the World”(1971, #1)
Three Dog Night “Quicksilver Girl”(1968)
The Steve Miller Band “My Girl”(1965, #1)
The Temptations ___________________ Songs listed by approximate appearance in the film.
What follows below is some history on Madison Avenue’s use of rock music in advertising; but first, a few words on The Big Chill’s storyline and its musical packaging.
The Big Chill is an introspective film featuring a weekend of soul searching by the group of college friends who have lost one of their former inner circle to suicide (Kevin Costner played the corpse). The film’s star-studded cast included Glenn Close, William Hurt, Tom Berenger, and Jeff Goldblum, among others.
The story opens at the funeral of their friend, Alex, and his death is the first unpleasant bit of reality to hit the group, soon to become immersed in a “ten-years-later” reality check on what they each have become since their college days. Among them is a medical doctor, an owner of athletic shoe company, a TV actor, a public-defender-turned-corporate-lawyer, an aimless, somewhat traumatized Vietnam veteran, a bored-to-tears housewife, a People magazine writer, and a pretty, somewhat younger woman who was living with their departed friend at the time of his suicide. This mix of characters retires from the funeral to the South Carolina home of one of the group, where they each work through their various feelings, concerns and hopes during the weekend. They eat, drink, cavort, reminisce, dance, smoke dope, and bare their souls. They fondly recall their college days and their causes, but also confront their disappointments and the waning of their idealism.
Though never stated per se, “the big chill” has hit them; the reality that their undergraduate dreams and intentions are not being realized. Their lives and careers have not turned out exactly as they envisioned them in college. Turns out, life is more difficult and less inspiring than what they thought it would be. In the end, some find new direction, some not. Others pick up where they left off. The film’s viewers, meanwhile, are fully engaged with the message, and also with the excellent soundtrack, as music becomes a big part of the film’s take-away connection.
The Big Chill soundtrack, in fact, is top shelf; some of the best music of the 1960s, placed nicely in the film’s storyline, hitting its intended viewers in their deepest memory banks and remaining in their heads for days after seeing the film. During the church scene at the funeral of the departed Alex, for example, one of the group begins to play a few riffs of one of his favorite songs on the church organ – the Rolling Stone’s “You Can’t Always Get What You Want” — as the camera pans the knowing smiles of his friends’ faces. The organ riff segues into the original tune which plays throughout the funeral scene.
Big Chill Sampler
“Tell Him” -The Exciters
In another scene in the kitchen where the group is cleaning up after a pasta and wine fest, The Temptations’ “Ain’t to Proud to Beg” is played, leading to impromptu dancing among friends. “The scene encapsulates the spirit of the film,” one reviewer would later write, “friendship forged in the footloose optimism of the 60′s; camaraderie instantly regained through the nostalgic power of good pop music.” (see film promo clip).
Other tunes in the film – such as “A Natural Woman” by Aretha Franklin; “Wouldn’t it Be Nice” by the Beach Boys; “The Weight” by The Band; “Bad Moon Rising” by Creedence Clearwater Revival; “Tracks of My Tears” by Smokey Robinson; “I Heard it Through the Grapevine” by Marvin Gaye; and “A Whiter Shade of Pale” by Procol Harum – all fit nicely into their scenes, serving as a kind of “comfort food” for Boomers. The Big Chill soundtrack, in fact, quickly became a popular best-seller for Motown, climbing to #17 on the Billboard albums chart in 1983, selling 1 million copies by late March 1984. All of this, of course, was not lost on Madison Avenue.
The Big Chill wasn’t the first movie to use original rock ‘n roll music in a soundtrack. Other films dating to the 1950s had already done so – such as 1955′s Blackboard Jungle, which used Bill Haley’s “Rock Around The Clock” over the opening and closing credits. The Beatles were among the first to integrate film and original rock music in their mid-1964 A Hard Day’s Night, which used about a dozen of their songs. Easy Rider of 1969 used rock music effectively in its score, and so did American Graffiti in 1973, the latter in a purposeful nostalgic vein. Madison Avenue, meanwhile, had a long history of using all kinds of music in advertising. However, rock ‘n roll music in advertising – especially original-version rock ‘n roll – was still new territory for advertisers in the early 1980s.
Pre Big Chill: 1960s-1985
In fact, prior to the mid-1980s, original rock ‘n roll music had pretty limited and spotty use in advertising. Rock and popular recording artists were commissioned to sing company jingles or musical spots for various products using company-provided lyrics or compositions. In 1963, the folk music group The Limeliters helped inaugurate a series of radio ads for the Coca-Cola company. They also did a few early TV ads. The Shirelles, one of the popular “girl groups” of the early 1960s, were among the first pop acts chosen by Coke to record radio commercials, doing a series of those ads for the company over several years. Among others who did Coke ads in 1965, and whose names appeared on vinyl promo recordings produced by Coke’s ad agency McCann-Erickson, were: the Four Seasons, Roy Orbison, Jay & the Americans, Jan & Dean, and others. In the 1965-69 period, for example, one Coca-Cola historian found 63 Coke radio spots by popular artists, including one by Freddie and the Dreamers singing one Coke lyric to their tune “I’m Telling You Now.”
Sample label from 1965 advertising recording of Coca-Cola jingles produced by ad agency McCann-Erickson featuring artists Roy Orbison and Jan & Dean
Among other Coke artists doing radio and/or TV spots during this era and later years were: the Bee Gees, Neil Diamond, the Moody Blues, the Tremeloes, the Troggs, Los Bravos, the Everly Brothers, Otis Redding, the Box Tops, Leslie Gore, Marvin Gaye, the Supremes, and Ray Charles. Pepsi, 7-Up, and a number of other companies were then recording jingles with pop groups as well. In the U.K., the young Rolling Stones recorded a rock jingle in the 1960s for Rice Krispies cereal that appeared on a European TV spot. Still, most of this music was commissioned specifically for the product, and did not use original, pre-existing rock songs. The nostalgic and “associative” value of these original rock songs, aimed at specific target groups, had yet to be linked to advertising pitches.
By the late 1970s, rock music was surfacing in a few other TV formats, as the 1976 Orleans hit, “Still the One” started to be used as the ABC-TV network theme song and also by the Nine Network in Australia for the same purpose. In 1981, there were musicians hooking up with beer and liquor companies in a variety of relationships, some of which involved TV and radio spots, doing company jingles, appearing in print ads, or becoming involved in sponsorship arrangements. These included Dave Mason of Traffic and later Fleetwood Mac, and Charlie Daniels of the Charlie Daniels Band doing beer commercials – Mason for Miller and Daniels for Busch. The Commodores became involved with Schlitz beer; Kool & The Gang with Schlitz Malt Liquor, Journey joined Budweiser, and The Marshall Tucker Band with Ronrico Rum. In the 1960s and 1970s, the nostalgic and “associa- tive” value of original rock `n roll music had yet to be linked to specific advertis- ing pitches. Ad agencies in the early and mid-1980s were also using some popular song melodies, but inserted their own product-specific lyrics usually performed by cover groups. As writer Carrie McLaren noted in research she’d done on this history: the Platters’ “Only You” became “Only Wendy’s”; the Diamonds’ “Little Darlin’” became KFC’s “Chicken Little”; Buddy Holly’s “Oh Boy” became “Oh Buick!”; Jerry Lee Lewis’ “Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On” became Burger King’s “Whole Lotta Breakfast Goin’ On”; Danny and the Juniors’ “At the Hop” becomes “Let’s Go Take a [Granola] Dip”; and Bobby Darin’s “Mack the Knife” became “It’s Mac Tonight.” In mid-1982, a version of the Beach Boys’ ”Good Vibrations” was being used in a Sunkist ad. By this time too, MTV, “music television,” was becoming a force. Launched in August 1981, the whole point of MTV was to use music videos to sell music. But it also had a major impact on advertising. By early 1984, for example, super pop sensation and MTV star Michael Jackson, then of “Thriller” and “moon walk” fame, had made two TV spots for Pepsi – ads that used Pepsi lyrics to the beat and sound of Jackson’s popular “Billie Jean” song in Pepsi’s “new generation” campaign.
Meanwhile, on another level, The Big Chill of 1983-84 helped show advertisers the way to a new kind of advertising to Baby Boomers through the rich connection to original rock songs. “It became prevalent in the mid-’80s after The Big Chill came out,” according to Ray Serafin, an automotive writer for Advertising Age. Many of the spots that followed The Big Chill, he explained, were trying “to evoke an emotional connection.” By the time of The Big Chill , the evocative con- nection between the ’60s music and its Boomer audience had become especially ripe. By the time of The Big Chill in 1983-84, the evocative connection between the music and its Boomer audience had become especially ripe. More years had elapsed between the music’s initial popularity and Boomers’ middling years. The music had, for this group, reached its “prime-time nostalgic vintage,” and so, had a more powerful appeal and connection.
In both film and advertising psychology, the music-emotion tie is a well-studied phenomenon, and has become a valued strategy. Movie producers know that the right music in a movie scene can make the scene more powerful, more memorable. Hollywood producers would pay hundreds of thousands of dollars to get the legal rights to use the right song in the right spot. Advertisers by the mid-1980s were willing to do the same.
Ford’s Yuppie Ads
In 1985, Ford Motor Company’s advertising agency, Young & Rubicam (Y&R), became an early developer of this approach, producing a series of 19 television commercials using 1960s and 1970s music. These ads were used to pitch Ford’s Lincoln-Mercury cars. Ford and Y&R called their advertising “The Yuppie Campaign” – meaning “Young Urban Professional” or “Young Upwardly Mobile Professionals,” describing a desirable Boomer market segment. The aim of the Ford/Y&R campaign was to make an emotional connection with Yuppies, bringing back memories of when they were in college. Different popular songs were used on each commercial, some in the original, some by imitators.
Bette Midler Case 1986-1988
Back in 1985, when the Ford Motor and its ad agency, Young & Rubicam, Inc., launched their 19 television ads with rock ’n roll music in their “The Yuppie Campaign,” one of the songs they used was a 1973 Bette Midler tune, “Do You Want to Dance.” In some of the songs that Young & Rubicam used in that campaign, they tried to obtain the original song versions for their ads. However, in ten cases the agency employed “sound-alikes” and not the original artists or original versions. One of the “sound-alikes” imitated Bette Midler in her song “Do You Want to Dance.” Midler by then was a nationally known actress and singer who had won a 1973 Grammy as Best New Artist, and also had recordings that had gone Gold and Platinum. She was also nominated in 1979 for an Academy award for Best Female Actress in The Rose, in which she portrayed a pop singer Janis Joplin. Midler had a long history of avoiding commercial endorsements, and in fact had refused Ford’s offer to do the ad herself. When the backup singer produced a very Midler-like version of the song for Ford – a version that even fooled Midler’s friends – Midler took legal action.
In 1986-87, Midler sued Lincoln-Mercury and Young & Rubicam, alleging that the use of a sound-alike in their ad constituted “an unlawful misappropriation of her persona.” She lost her first attempt at the trial court level when her case was dismissed. But the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeal came to her aide in a 1988 decision, noting that, “… when a distinctive voice of a professional singer is widely known and is deliberately imitated in order to sell a product, the sellers have appropriated what is not theirs and have committed a tort in California.” She was also awarded $400,000 by the jury. Midler’s success – which came to be known as the “Midler tort” in California – put a damper on the use of sound-alikes. But soon, outright licensing of original songs became the preferred way to go for commercial interests, although many artists would not go down that path.
In early March 1985, for example, Lincoln-Mercury used the music from the Beatles song “Help”in one of their ads – though the tune in this case was sung by other artists, not the Beatles. Still, it was the first time that a Beatles song was used in an American TV spot, and Lincoln-Mercury paid $100,000 at the time to use it. After that, The Beatles refused to allow their music to be used in commercials, though that would change after a later battle with Nike. Other artists whose music was used in the Lincoln-Mercury ads – either in the original or by imitators – included Bette Midler, the Coasters, the Four Tops, the Temptations, Tina Turner, and Martha & the Vandellas.
Among artists and fans, meanwhile, there was resistance to using rock ‘n roll songs in advertising and other commercial applications. Some artists refused to allow their songs to be used for advertising. Among artists in the mid-1980s then resisting the practice were, for example, Bruce Springsteen, Neil Young, Joan Jett, Chrissie Hynde, Billy Idol, and John Mellencamp. Some music fans would object to the practice in more fundamental way.
Carrie McLaren, writing some years later about music and advertising, described how she associated a car commercial with the song “Everyday People” by Sly and Family Stone after casually hearing the song on a radio at a bagel shop. She caught herself in the thought, angered by the car-ad association, rather than remembering the artist per se, “the everybody-can-get-along” message of the song, or her college days when she first heard the music. “When I reacted to “Everyday People,’” she explained, ” it wasn’t about [the artist] selling out or some ’60s multicultural love-in; it was as if the song in my head had been swiped.” And that for many fans – the appropriation and/or distortion of musical memory – would continue to be an issue as more and more original music was used in advertising. Still, the genie was out of the bottle by this time. Advertisers had discovered the power in original rock music and there would be little turning back. By 1986 Rolling Stone magazine had launched a separate newsletter, Marketing Through Music, aimed at promoting the use of rock music to sell consumer goods, especially to the young adult audience.
The “Big Chill advertising” that began in the mid- and late-1980s was just the beginning. Some important legal fights were yet to come, including the Beatles’ fight with Nike in the late 1980s over the use of one of their songs. But increasingly, through the 1990s (see “Selling Janis Joplin”, for example ), the use of original rock music in advertising would escalate and become more common.
15th anniversary DVD edition, 1998.
As for The Big Chill, the movie and music continued to have a good run for years after its initial opening. In the year after the movie’s opening, a second album of music was released: The Big Chill: More Songs from the Original Soundtrack. The original soundtrack meanwhile sold 2 million copies by late September 1985. It would eventually sell more than six million copies, becoming one of Motown’s best-selling albums. In 1998, the film’s 15 anniversary year, there was a theatrical reissue of the film in November, and a DVD version by Sony the following January. The DVD includes a retrospective documentary, deleted scenes, the movie’s trailer, and a six-page insert. “The Big Chill reasserts itself effortlessly… as an irresistibly satisfying cultural artifact,” wrote Entertainment Weekly’s Lisa Schwarzbaum at the film’s 1998 reissue. In 1998 as well, both the original and supplemental Big Chill music albums were remastered and released anew. In 2004, a deluxe edition of the soundtrack was released containing all but two of the eighteen songs from the film, plus three additional instrumentals from the film. A second “music-of-a-generation” disc of nineteen additional tracks was also included in the deluxe edition, some of which had appeared on the original albums. In 2008, some twenty-five years after its release, The Big Chill still had an online following.
Stay tuned to this website for other stories on the history and use of music in advertising and related issues.
The Big Chill cast in front of the home in South Carolina where the film was shot, from left: Glenn Close, Kevin Kline, Meg Tilly, William Hurt, Tom Berenger, Mary Kay Place, Jeff Goldblum, and JoBeth Williams.
In the mid- and late-1980s, Coca-Cola and Pepsi, the corporate kings of soda, were engaged in game of one-upmanship with their advertising dollars. An effective way to reach millions of consumers, they found, was to have popular recording stars perform in Pepsi and Coca-Cola television ads. The strategy had worked brilliantly for Pepsi with music stars Michael Jackson and Whitney Houston. In the process, the 60-second TV ad became more of a major film production than a simple soft-drink endorsement. Elaborate performances showcasing the artists and the product of interest were now becoming part of a new commercial persuasion. In December 1988, Coca-Cola announced that it had signed then popular recording artist George Michael to do some of its TV ads. Shortly thereafter, on January 25th 1989, Pepsi announced they had signed pop sensation Madonna to tout their cola. The deal made front-page business and style-section news across the country. Pepsi would pay Madonna $5 million to appear in a series of TV ads and would also sponsor a Madonna world tour, planned for later that year.
Rolling Stone cover, September 1987.
Madonna by this time was already a big star. She had made her 1984 breakthrough performance at the MTV video awards; scored assorted #1 singles and albums; and had swept up fans around the world. By 1987 she had made the covers of national magazines such as Time,Life and Rolling Stone, and had also begun a film career. But Madonna was also controversial, having stirred the censors on occasion with her lyrics, dress, and/or sexually-suggestive performances. Pepsi was nonetheless happy to have her associate with their product.
The TV ad she starred in and helped produce for Pepsi in 1989 – entitled “Make A Wish” — did not appear to be controversial, and in fact was rather wholesome and spirited, tinged with some nostalgia and even family values. It featured her in a song and dance performance centered on her then forthcoming new song “Like A Prayer.” The Pepsi ad used a flash-back storyline opening with Madonna seated in a parlor watching an old black-and-white home movie of herself as a young girl at a birthday party. Pepsi even made a special “ad for the ad” — a teaser video to hype the Madonna spot — which ran on the nationally- televised Grammy awards.The spot cuts back and forth between the young Madonna and adult versions in sync with the lyrics – to various dance scenes, back to the young girl in school, to more dancing in a street scene, back to the girl a little older, another with Madonna dancing among joyful gospel singers, and then finally to Madonna in the opening parlor scene watching the home movie seated with a can of Pepsi. There she watches the little 8-year old Madonna in the black-and-white film at her party, with a 1950s Pepsi bottle and straw, about to blow out the candles on her cake. Across the ages, the two Madonnas toast each other with their respective Pepsis. Then Madonna says to the birthday girl, “Go ahead, make a wish.” With that, the little girl blows out the candles and the film ends. Cut to Pepsi logo and slogan, “A Generation Ahead.” The ad, in fact, comes across quite well, with nothing to offend. Madonna later called it “very, very sweet. It’s very sentimental”– not an inaccurate description.
Madonna dancing in Pepsi ad.
No Small Production
The production of this ad was not a casual undertaking. Pepsi and Madonna put a fair amount of time and effort into its casting and choreography. The ad would also be the first time that a major recording was ever released in a TV spot rather than over the radio or other special venue. In fact, Pepsi even made a special “ad for the ad” – a teaser video to hype the ad’s release before it ran. Pepsi ran the teaser spot during the nationally-televised Grammy music awards in February 1989, urging viewers to be sure they saw the forthcoming special Madonna ad. In the teaser, a narrator’s voice runs over a short film clip showing an aboriginal man in a desert making his way to a hut with satellite dish. “No matter where you are in the world on March 2nd,” intones the narrator in theater-shaking surround sound, “get to a T.V. and watch Pepsi’s two-minute Madonna commercial featuring her latest release, ‘Like A Prayer’ [pause] – for the very first time.”Pepsi expected that 250 million people would see the ad’s premier.
In early March 1989, Pepsi previewed the commercial for the press. The plan was to run the spot around the world on the top-rated evening TV shows in each of some 40 countries. Pepsi expected that 250 million people would see the ad’s premier. It would begin in Japan and then follow the time zones west around the world through Asia and Europe, finishing in California. Bill Kaatz, an executive with Pepsi’s ad agency, BBDO, said the two-minute ad would later be edited into 60-second and 30-second versions for regular advertising. Everything appeared to be on track. The ad, however, was not what generated the controversy that soon erupted.
Madonna in 'Like A Prayer' video.
“Like A Prayer” Video
In January 1989, Madonna had also made a separate video to help launch her forthcoming new album Like A Prayer, which included the single by that name used in the Pepsi ad. This video, however, had somewhat different imagery than the Pepsi ad. In the video, the action begins with Madonna running from the sound of police sirens, falling to the ground and then entering a church for sanctuary. In flashback sequences, it is shown that Madonna has witnessed a rape and stabbing of a woman by a white man. The rape victim is aided by a black man who is then blamed for the crime and arrested. Inside the church, Madonna is shown in scenes seeking guidance about her dilemma as the witness to the crime for the wrongly-accused good Samaritan. In one scene she is kissed on the forehead by Saint Martin de Porres. Other scenes show Madonna dancing and singing in front of burning crosses and letting her shoulder straps fall. At one point she is seen grasping a knife, letting it fall to the ground leaving wounds on her palms or her hand, which some interpreted as stigmata or marks of crucifixion, which some later cite as sacrilegious. Madonna is also shown dancing and singing with a gospel choir in the video. And finally, she is shown going to the police as a witness, helping to free the innocent man. At the end of the video, a curtain comes down, and Madonna and cast come out on stage to take a bow.
'Like A Prayer' ran heavily on MTV.
The “Like a Prayer” video began running on cable TV’s MTV channel the day after the Pepsi commercial aired. The Pepsi spot had run on March 2nd without incident on the family-oriented Cosby Show and also in other locations around the world. An estimated 250 million people saw the first airing in the U.S., the U.K., and other countries. Meanwhile, the “Like A Prayer” video on MTV ran in what is called “heavy rotation,” as was the normal practice with popular music videos on that channel. And that’s when the trouble began for Pepsi.
The first objections came from Rev. Donald Wildmond of the American Family Association, a Christian group. Wildmond threatened to have his AFA Journal’s 380,000 subscribers boycott Pepsi until the company bowed to his demands. From his home base in Tupelo, Mississippi, Wildmond demanded that Pepsi nullify their deal with Madonna Religious groups charged Madonna with ”ridiculing Christianity,” and bid Pepsi to drop their deal with her.because their commercial is “putting Madonna up as a clean, wholesome role model” on the one hand, while her MTV video on the other hand was “ridiculing Christianity.” Wildmond was no novice to these kinds of fights, as he had recently boycotted Martin Scorsese’s film The Last Temptation of Christ. Pepsi, however, had not seen Madonna’s MTV video before their own TV ad began to run, nor did they have the right to make any judgements about Madonna’s other work
CD sleeve for 'Like A Prayer' single.
Initially, when Wildmond’s boycott threat arose, Pepsi spokesman Tod McKenzie tried to deflect the negative press. “Why isn’t he going after the [MTV] video?” McKenzie asked. “Why has he targeted really an innocent, wholesome commercial people have responded favorably to?” Still, Pepsi immediately put a hold on further broadcasting of the Madonna ad until they could assess what was happening. Then a Catholic bishop from Texas, Rene Gracido, added his voice to the fight, calling Madonna’s video offensive. He too called for a boycott of Pepsi and its other corporate holdings – including Taco Bell, Pizza Hut, and Kentucky Fried Chicken. The protest began to grow. Some Catholic groups in Italy started to protest. Then came a giant blow: the Pope released a statement by the Vatican that banned Madonna from appearing in Italy. The album Like a Prayer, was later censured by the Vatican.
Pepsi dropped Madonna like a hot potato and the ad was never shown again. Said a Pepsi spokesman at the time: “When you’ve got an ad that confuses people or concerns people, it just makes sense that that ad goes away.”“I really couldn’t believe how out of control the whole Pepsi thing got.” - Madonna Still, the ad survives today on You Tube and other web sites (see links above). Pepsi also dropped its planned sponsorship of Madonna’s world tour, although some Madonna Pepsi cans had already been printed. Madonna, however, retained her entire $5 million payment even though her contract had called for three more Pepsi commercials. Madonna, meanwhile, professed surprise at the reaction. “When I think of controversy, I never really think people are going to be half as shocked as they are at what I do,” she said. “I really couldn’t believe how out of control the whole Pepsi thing got.”
Cover of Madonna's 'Like A Prayer' album.
Soaring Record Sales
The controversy, however, did not appear to hurt Madonna’s music sales or slow her rising star. The news coverage and the controversy simply bolstered her cache. The timing of the whole affair was very good indeed – coming just as some 2 million copies of her album Like A Prayer were heading for the record stores. By late March and early April 1989, the single and the album, Like a Prayer, both shot to #1 on the Billboard charts. The album would proceed to sell 13 million copies worldwide, 4 million alone in the U.S., also spawning four Top Ten singles and becoming the top album in over thirty countries. “If there was anyone left in the world who didn’t know who Madonna was up until that point,” wrote Mark Bego in his 1992 book, Madonna: Blonde Ambition, “they certainly knew who she was now.” Still, at this point, Madonna had another two decades of career and controversy ahead, with many more albums, movies, concerts and multi-million-dollar contracts to come. By January 2007, Forbes magazine was reporting that Madonna was the 4th wealthiest woman in entertainment, worth an estimated $350-to-$400 million dollars.
Andrea Adelson, “Madonna Joins Pepsi Lineup,” New York Times, Jan 26, 1989.
Jane Applegate, “Pepsi Recruits Madonna to Help Fight Cola War,” Los Angeles Times, January 26, 1989, Section IV, p.1.
Peter Fearon, “Stars Win Stripes in the Cola Wars,” Media & Marketing, The Times (London), Wednesday, February 8, 1989.
“Going Global with Madonna — Pepsi-Cola Co.’s Commercial To Air in 40 Countries,” New York Times, March 2, 1989, p. C-16.
Joanne Lipman, “Debut of Madonna Single; ‘Like a Prayer’ Song to Make Debut on Pepsi Television Commercial,” Wall Street Journal, March 2 , 1989, p. B-6.
Michael J. McCarthy, “Christian Group Says It Will Boycott Pepsi Over Madonna Ties; Association Led By Wildmon Calls New Music Video By Rock Singer Offensive,” Wall Street Journal, March 9, 1989, p. B-7.
“Another Temptation,” U.S. News & World Report, March 20, 1989, p.13.
Bill Zehme, “Madonna – Rolling Stone Interview,” Rolling Stone, March 23, 1989, p.50.
“Pepsi Cancels Madonna Ad,” New York Times, April 5, 1989.
James R. Schiffman, “Pepsico Cans TV Ads With Madonna, Pointing up Risks of Using Superstars,” Wall Street Journal, April 5 , 1989, p. B-11.
Bruce Horovitz, “Attempt To Cap Madonna Ad Protest Fizzles For Pepsi,” Los Angeles Times, April 7, 1989, p. IV-3.
Peter Waldman, “This Madonna Isn’t What the Reverend Really Had in Mind; Minister Helped Get Pepsi to End Singer’s Racy Ad: He Pans ‘Lonesome Dove,’”Wall Street Journal, April 7, 1989, p. A-1.
“Headliners; Quick Cancellation,” New York Times, April 9, 1989.
Dody Tsiantar, “Turning Out TV Ads; Pepsi Pulls its Too-Hot-to-Handle Madonna Spot as a New Study Asks Who’s Really Paying Attention,” Newsweek, April 17, 1989, p. 42.
“Madonna’s ‘Like a Prayer’ Clip Causes a Controversy,” Rolling Stone, April 20, 1989, p. 22.
Bruce Horovitz, “Pepsi Plans No New Ads to Sub for Pulled Madonna TV Spot,” Los Angeles Times, April 20, 1989, p. IV-3.
Jeffrey Ressner, “Pepsi Goes Flat on Madonna,”Rolling Stone, May 18, 1989, p. 27.
“Madonna’s Controversies,”@ Wikipedia.com.
Mark Bego, “The Madonna/Pepsi Controversy,” in Madonna: Blonde Ambition ,New York: Cooper Square Press, 1992.