The Pop History Dig

“JFK’s Early Campaign”
1957

1956 campaign button – part of the hastily-assembled material used to boost JFK for the VP slot at the DNC.
1956 campaign button – part of the hastily-assembled material used to boost JFK for the VP slot at the DNC.
     When Jack Kennedy set out to run for President of the United States, he decided to begin early and run hard.  Kennedy had been surprised by nearly winning the 1956 Democratic nomination for Vice President at the party’s national convention in Chicago.  Adlai Stevenson, the Democrats’ presidential nominee that year, had thrown open the VP selection to the full convention, and JFK and Senator Estes Kefauver became the principal contestants. The ensuing race proved to be very close, providing Americans with some  dramatic television that summer. 

     Kennedy, who earlier in 1956 published the book, Profiles in Courage, led in the balloting at one point.  But with some arm-twisting and delegate switching, Kefauver prevailed after two rounds of roll-call voting.  Yet Kennedy would later remark to his inner circle, that if he came that close to the VP nomination after only “four hours of work and a handful of supporters,” a more concerted effort over the next several years might well give him the big prize: the presidential nomination and a shot at the White House.  And so he began in 1957 – well in advance of the 1960 Democratic National Convention – making targeted visits and traveling the U.S., all with the aim of building his candidacy from that point on through the fall 1960 presidential election campaign.

Aug. 29, 1957: Senator John F. Kennedy, far left, with other fellow senators, from left: George Smathers (D-FL), Hubert H. Humphrey (D-MN) and William Proxmire (D-WI), all listening to Majority Leader, Lyndon B. Johnson (D-TX).
Aug. 29, 1957: Senator John F. Kennedy, far left, with other fellow senators, from left: George Smathers (D-FL), Hubert H. Humphrey (D-MN) and William Proxmire (D-WI), all listening to Majority Leader, Lyndon B. Johnson (D-TX).
     Kennedy in 1957 was a junior U.S. Senator nearing the end of his first six-year term, also mounting a senate re-election campaign in Massachusetts.  But even then, JFK was more than just a U.S. Senator and had begun vying for leadership within his party.  In 1957 he would win a seat on the prestigious Senate Foreign Relations Committee and also join the Senate Rackets Committee then investigating organized crime and labor — the same committee where his younger brother Bobby was serving as committee counsel.  In early May 1957, JFK would win the Pulitzer Prize for his book Profiles in Courage.  Meanwhile, the media had already discovered the young handsome senator, who would grace the covers of a few magazines that year as well.

1956: JFK shown in publicity photo for his book, “Profiles in Courage,” which helped him gain notice in 1957 and beyond.
1956: JFK shown in publicity photo for his book, “Profiles in Courage,” which helped him gain notice in 1957 and beyond.
     The year 1957 had its share of notable events.  In late September, President Eisenhower had to send federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas to enforce court-ordered desegregation of public schools and to keep the peace.  In October, the first earth-orbiting satellite was sent into space, Sputnik, launched by the Russians.  Among movies that year were Peyton Place and Twelve Angry Men; in literature, Jack Kerouac’s On The Road was popular; on Broadway, West Side Story was playing; and on television, Leave it To Beaver made its premiere.  In the 1957 World Series, the Milwaukee Braves beat the New York Yankees in a seven-game series.

1957: RFK & JFK during Senate Racketts hearings, then  investigating crime infiltration of labor unions.
1957: RFK & JFK during Senate Racketts hearings, then investigating crime infiltration of labor unions.
     Senator Kennedy that year received more than 2,500 speaking invitations from across the nation, and he would accept more than 140 of them.  Still, out in the country, Kennedy was not well known, and in those early campaign days – referred to by his inner circle as the “undercover presidential campaign” – there would often be small turnouts and empty seats in the local venues where he appeared.  But Kennedy was also doing the important spade work of political organizing on these trips; getting to know which local politicians and organizers were the most effective and who could help him win the nomination and beyond.  What follows below is an abbreviated listing of some of JFK’s travel and speaking itinerary for the year 1957, highlighted with a few photographs and magazine covers also from that year.  A number of his speeches from 1957 are also listed below in “Sources, Links & Additional Information” at the bottom of this article.  See also at this website, “The Jack Pack, 1958-1960.”  Additional stories on JFK’s road to the White House in 1960 will be posted in future weeks.  Thanks for visiting. - Jack Doyle

 

JFK’s Early Campaign
Speeches, Dinners, Media, Democratic Party Activity, Etc,.
January-December 1957

 

January 1957: JFK with University of Illinois officials in Champaign where he gave a commencement address.
January 1957: JFK with University of Illinois officials in Champaign where he gave a commencement address.
March 11, 1957: JFK on the cover of Life magazine, and author of, “Where Democrats Should Go From Here.”
March 11, 1957: JFK on the cover of Life magazine, and author of, “Where Democrats Should Go From Here.”
May 31, 1957: JFK at the University of South Carolina with university president Donald Russell.
May 31, 1957: JFK at the University of South Carolina with university president Donald Russell.
June 3, 1957: Sen. Kennedy delivering commencement address at Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY.
June 3, 1957: Sen. Kennedy delivering commencement address at Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY.
Nov. 1957: Nevada state Senator E. L. Cord shaking hands with JFK during a Young Democrats tour in Reno, NV. On the left is U.S. Senator Alan Bible (D-NV).
Nov. 1957: Nevada state Senator E. L. Cord shaking hands with JFK during a Young Democrats tour in Reno, NV. On the left is U.S. Senator Alan Bible (D-NV).

Jan-Feb 1957

Jan 12: New York, NY, Irish Institute
Jan 16: NY, NY, Armed Forces Mgmt Assoc
Jan 27: Champaign, IL, University of Illinois
Feb 4: Wash., DC, Herbert Hoover Dinner
Feb 7: Albany, GA, Chamber of Commerce
Feb 12: ABC-TV: “Omnibus: Call it Courage”
Feb 19: Atlantic City, NJ, Nat’l School Board
Feb 22: So. Bend, IN, Univ. of Notre Dame
Feb 23: Springfield, MO, Jackson Day
Feb 24: Cleve., OH, Cnf Christians & Jews

 

Mar-Apr 1957

Mar 11: JFK on cover of Life magazine
Mar 17: Baltimore, MD, St. Patrick’s Dinner
Mar 21: Birmingham, AL, Municipalities
Mar 23: NY, NY Tribune/H School Forum
Mar 29: Albuquerque, NM, Dem. Dinner
Apr 4: Lynchburg, VA, Democratic Dinner
Apr 10: Wash.,DC, Machine Products Assn.
Apr 14: NYTimes magazine article by JFK
Apr 29: Wash., DC, Notre Dame Night
Apr 29: Wash., DC, Nat’l Chamber of Com

 

May-June-July 1957

May 1: Wash., DC, U.S. Senate Portraits
May 3: Wash., DC, Assoc. Harvard Clubs
May 6: NY, NY, Overseas Press Club Speech
May 7: Pulitzer Prize, Profiles in Courage
May 9: Wilm., DE, Jeff-Jack Day Dinner
May 11: Boston, MA, Democratic Club Mtg
May 17: Omaha, NE, Jeff-Jack Day Dinner
May 18: Lincoln, University of Nebraska
May 21: Boston, New England Publishers
May 23: Chicago, IL, Cook County Dems
May 31: Columbia, SC, Univ. of So. Carolina
Jun 3: Syracuse, NY, Syracuse University
Jun 7: Hot Springs, AR, Arkansas Bar Assoc.
Jun 10: Atlanta, GA, S.E. Peanut Assoc.
Jun 10: Atlanta, Univ of GA Commencement
Jun 13: Detroit, Relief for Poland Dinner
Jun 15: Plymouth, MA, Mass. Bar Assoc.
Jun 15: Rockland, ME, Jeff-Jackson Dinner
July 1: ABC-TV’s “Press Conference” Show
July 2: U.S. Senate Spch, France & Algeria

 

Aug-Sept-Oct 1957

Aug 22: Madison, WI, Wis. Dem Dinner
Sept 1: Milton, MA, Milton Seminary
Sept 11: NY, NY, U.S. Conf. of Mayors
Sept 19: New Rochelle, NY, Iona College
Sept 19: Albany, NY, State Dem Dinner
Oct 8: Fredericton, New Brunswick Univ.
Oct 9: Chicago, Economic Club Dinner
Oct 9: Swampscott, MA, Teachers’ Convn
Oct 10: Baltimore, MD, Teachers’ Convn
Oct 10: Great Barrington, MA, Town Clerks
Oct 13: New Bedford, MA, United Givers
Oct 14: Boston, Nat’l Assoc Ag Agents
Oct 15: Chicago, Inland Daily Press Assoc
Oct 17: Jackson, MS, Young Democrats
Oct 18: Gainesville, FL, Univ. of Florida
Oct 19: Gainesville, U of FL/Phi Alpha Delta
Oct 23: NY, NY, Hungarian Fighters
Oct 23: ABC-TV(drama), Navy Log: PT 109
Oct 24: Boston, Assoc Industries of MA
Oct 27: NY, NY, Yeshiva University
Oct 30: Easton, PA, Democratic Dinner
Oct 31: Wash., DC, AFL-CIO /Indust. Dept.

 

Nov-Dec 1957

Nov 1: Philadelphia, PA, University of PA
Nov 6: Topeka, KS, Kansas Dem Club
Nov 7: Oklahoma City, Jeff-Jack Dinner
Nov 7: Oklahoma, “Farm Policy”
Nov 7: Lawrence, KS, University of KS
Nov 8: Reno, NV, Young Dem Clubs
Nov 17: NY, NY, Am. Jewish Congress
Nov 18: Daytona Bch, FL, Municipalities
Nov 19: NY, NY, Temple Emmanuel
Nov 24: NBC-TV: “Look Here”
Nov 27: Birth of Caroline Kennedy
Nov 28: Dallas, TX, Texas Teachers
Dec 2: JFK on cover of Time magazine
Dec 3: Chicago, Conf of Christians & Jews
_____________________________

Note:  The above listing of Sen. Kennedy’s travels
and speeches in 1957 may not include all of his

activities during that year.  The full titles of his
speeches are included below,  in the second half
of  “Sources.”  More photos also follow below.

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Date Posted: 7 August 2013
Last Update: 8 November 2013
Comments to: jdoyle@pophistorydig.com

Article Citation:
Jack Doyle, “JFK’s Early Campaign: 1957,”
PopHistoryDig.com, August 7, 2013.

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Sources, Links & Additional Information

December  2, 1957: Sen. John F. Kennedy appears on the cover of Time magazine with a feature story titled, “Democrat’s Man Out Front.”
December 2, 1957: Sen. John F. Kennedy appears on the cover of Time magazine with a feature story titled, “Democrat’s Man Out Front.”
February 22, 1957: Sen. Kennedy being honored with the 1957 Patriotism Award, Notre Dame University, South Bend, Indiana.  Photo, Notre Dame archives.
February 22, 1957: Sen. Kennedy being honored with the 1957 Patriotism Award, Notre Dame University, South Bend, Indiana. Photo, Notre Dame archives.
Oct 1957: JFK receiving honorary degree from Lord Beaverbrook at University of New Brunswick in Canada, where JFK gave speech, "Good Fences Make Good Neighbors" at the fall convocation.
Oct 1957: JFK receiving honorary degree from Lord Beaverbrook at University of New Brunswick in Canada, where JFK gave speech, "Good Fences Make Good Neighbors" at the fall convocation.
Nov 7, 1957: Sen. Kennedy visits with Kansas University students while in Lawrence, KS to give the 1957 convocation speech.  Journal-World file photo.
Nov 7, 1957: Sen. Kennedy visits with Kansas University students while in Lawrence, KS to give the 1957 convocation speech. Journal-World file photo.
1957: Robert F. Kennedy (center left) and Senator John F. Kennedy (center right) during the McClellan Rackets hearings, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C.
1957: Robert F. Kennedy (center left) and Senator John F. Kennedy (center right) during the McClellan Rackets hearings, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C.
1957: Robert F. Kennedy and Senator John F. Kennedy during McClellan Rackets hearings, Washington, D.C.
1957: Robert F. Kennedy and Senator John F. Kennedy during McClellan Rackets hearings, Washington, D.C.
1957: Robert and John F. Kennedy (center) questioning witness at Senate Rackets Committee hearings.
1957: Robert and John F. Kennedy (center) questioning witness at Senate Rackets Committee hearings.
“Navy Log,” a TV series of the 1950s, included a show broadcast 23 Oct 1957 –  “PT 109" –  a dramatization of a WWII  incident, in which Naval Lieutenant Commander  John F. Kennedy helped save crew members after their PT 109 boat was struck by a Japanese destroyer.  Show was rerun, March 13,1958.
“Navy Log,” a TV series of the 1950s, included a show broadcast 23 Oct 1957 – “PT 109" – a dramatization of a WWII incident, in which Naval Lieutenant Commander John F. Kennedy helped save crew members after their PT 109 boat was struck by a Japanese destroyer. Show was rerun, March 13,1958.
JFK visiting with two of Boston’s finest while campaigning in Massachusetts sometime in 1957.
JFK visiting with two of Boston’s finest while campaigning in Massachusetts sometime in 1957.
June 1957: JFK and wife Jacqueline at family gathering at Hickory Hill house in McLean, VA, home of RFK.
June 1957: JFK and wife Jacqueline at family gathering at Hickory Hill house in McLean, VA, home of RFK.
July 1957: Jack and Jackie (then pregnant) at Tiffany benefit ball at Marble House in Newport, RI.  JFK is greeting socialite Mrs. John Drexel III.  Photo, Life / Ralph Morse.
July 1957: Jack and Jackie (then pregnant) at Tiffany benefit ball at Marble House in Newport, RI. JFK is greeting socialite Mrs. John Drexel III. Photo, Life / Ralph Morse.
November 27, 1957: JFK and Jacqueline at the christening of their daughter, Caroline, with then Archbishop Richard Cushing of Boston.
November 27, 1957: JFK and Jacqueline at the christening of their daughter, Caroline, with then Archbishop Richard Cushing of Boston.
Cover of hardback edition, “Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye,” written by two of JFK’s closest aides, Kenny O’Donnell and Dave Powers, and published in 1970.
Cover of hardback edition, “Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye,” written by two of JFK’s closest aides, Kenny O’Donnell and Dave Powers, and published in 1970.
Back cover of “Johnny We Hardly Knew Ye,” showing JFK at an airport with his close aides, Dave Powers (center) and Kenny O’Donnell (right), who traveled with JFK across the U.S. during his earliest campaigning.
Back cover of “Johnny We Hardly Knew Ye,” showing JFK at an airport with his close aides, Dave Powers (center) and Kenny O’Donnell (right), who traveled with JFK across the U.S. during his earliest campaigning.
Photographer Jacques Lowe’s 1961 book on JFK includes history of  JFK’s early campaigning.
Photographer Jacques Lowe’s 1961 book on JFK includes history of JFK’s early campaigning.
First edition of Theodore White’s classic political campaign book covering the 1960 presidential election.
First edition of Theodore White’s classic political campaign book covering the 1960 presidential election.
Robert Dallek’s 2003 book on John F. Kennedy, “An Unfinished Life” (hardback edition ).
Robert Dallek’s 2003 book on John F. Kennedy, “An Unfinished Life” (hardback edition ).
Chris Matthews’ 2011 book, “Jack Kennedy: Elusive Hero.”
Chris Matthews’ 2011 book, “Jack Kennedy: Elusive Hero.”
1965 hardback edition of  “A Thousand Days,” Arthur Schlesinger’s monumental, Pulitzer Prize -winning history of JFK’s time in office as President.
1965 hardback edition of “A Thousand Days,” Arthur Schlesinger’s monumental, Pulitzer Prize -winning history of JFK’s time in office as President.
2003 book, “Remembering Jack,” featuring some 600 photos of JFK and the Kennedy family by the late photographer, Jacques Lowe.
2003 book, “Remembering Jack,” featuring some 600 photos of JFK and the Kennedy family by the late photographer, Jacques Lowe.

John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, JFKlibrary.org, Boston, MA.

Kenneth P. O’Donnell and David F. Powers with Joe McCarthy, Johnny, We Hardly Knew Ye, Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1970.

Jacques Lowe, Portrait: The Emergence of John F. Kennedy, New York: Bramhall House/McGraw-Hill, 1961.

The New York Times, with photographs by Jacques Lowe, The Kennedy Years, New York: Viking Press, 1964.

The John F. Kennedy 1960 Campaign, Part II: Speeches, Press Conferences & Debates (Speech Files, 1953-1960). A Collection From the Holdings of The John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, MA, Edited by Paul L. Kesaris; Associate Editor, Robert E. Lester; Guide compiled by Douglas D. Newman (a microfilm project of University Publications of America, Inc., Frederick, MD, 1986).

“1960 Election Chronology,” DavidPietrus- za.com.

Theodore H. White, The Making of the President 1960, New York: Atheneum Publishers, 1962.

David Pietrusza, 1960–LBJ vs. JFK vs. Nixon: The Epic Campaign That Forged Three Presidencies, New York: Union Square Press, 2008.

W. H. Lawrence, “…Kefauver Is Nominated for Vice President, Defeating Kennedy on the Second Ballot; Tennessean Wins after Close Race…,” New York Times, August 18, 1956.

C. P. Trussell, “Kennedy Gets Post Sought by Kefauver; High Senate Spot Goes to Kennedy Other Assignments Listed,” New York Times, January 9, 1957

“Mideast Plan Scouted; Senator Kennedy Warns Policy Is Not Cure-All for Area,” New York Times, January 17, 1957.

Joseph A. Loftus, “Senators Agreed on Rackets Panel; Tentative Plan Puts 4 From Each Party on Special Labor Inquiry Group,” New York Times, January 26, 1957.

“Politics: Our Most Neglected Profession,” John F. Kennedy, January 27, 1957, Record Series # 39/1/5, University of Illinois Archives.

Benjamin Fine, “School Officials Urge Integration; Administrators’ Convention Adopts Strong Resolution Against Segregation; Local Action Is Asked; U. S. Building Aid Favored; Kennedy Sees Backing by Congress This Year; Federal Aid Urged,” New York Times, February 21, 1957.

John D. Morris, “7 Democrats Aid G.O.P. on Mideast; Kennedy Leads Senate Fight for Eisenhower Doctrine Without Any Revisions; Vote on Tuesday Likely…,” New York Times, March 2, 1957.

“Kennedy Warns His Party on ’60; Democrat Says ‘New Ideas’ Would Be Needed to Beat Nixon for Presidency,” New York Times, The Week In Review, March 7, 1957.

“Nixon Hails Kennedy; Praises Speech Supporting the President on Mideast,” New York Times, March 11, 1957.

John F. Kennedy, “Search For the Five Greatest Senators; a Senator Describes the Problems in Choosing the Best Men from the Senate’s 168 Years.” The New York Times Magazine, April 14, 1957.

Bill Becker, “Kennedy Favors Aid to Satellites; Urges Formulation of New U.S. Policy at Overseas Press Club Dinner,” New York Times, May 7, 1957.

“Kennedy Aids Negroes; Senator Presents $500 Pulitzer Check to College Fund,” New York Times, May 12, 1957.

Donald Janson, (Omaha, NE), “Senator Kennedy Urges ‘Bold’ U.S. Move To Grant Poland $200,000,000 in Aid.,” New York Times, May 18, 1957.

Bob Ackerman, “Kennedy Urges Graduates to Enter Politics; Says US Needs Talents,” The State  (Columbia, South Carolina), June 1, 1957.

United Press (Hot Springs, Arkansas), “Kennedy Disclaims Bid; Won’t Seek Presidency in ’60 –Suggests McClellan,” The New York Times Book Review, June 8, 1957.

“Convention to Be TV Show Audience” (JFK interviewed by ABC’s Martha Rountree on “Press Conference” show), New York Times, June 25, 1957.

“Kennedy Says He’d Run If Offered’ 60 Nomination,” Washington Post/Times Herald, July 1, 1957, p. A-12.

Arthur Krock, “Five Political Figures with a Single Thought; Three Democrats, Two Republicans Are Already in the Running For A Presidential Nomination…,” New York Times, July 7, 1957.

“Kennedy in ’60 Backed; Seen by McClellan as Possible Nominee of Democrats,” New York Times, August 5, 1957.

“Senator Kennedy To Advise For TV; He Will Oversee a ‘Navy Log’ Story of Own War Exploit…,” New York Times, August 6, 1957.

Joseph A. Loftus, “Senator Scores Inquiry Lawyers; Kennedy Says They Do More Than Advise Labor Clients…,” New York Times, August 8, 1957.

Associated Press, (Gainsville, FL), “Senator Kennedy Calls on Bar Groups To Check Unethical Practices in Field,” New York Times, Week in Review, October 20, 1957.

Navy Log: PT 109 (TV dramatization of the PT-109 incident, in which the heroism of Naval Lieutenant Commander John F. Kennedy helps save crew members when their PT boat is struck by a Japanese destroyer), Original broadcast, ABC TV October 23, 1957 (rerun March 13,1958).

Irving Spiegel, “Senator Defends Minority Causes; Kennedy Backs Principle of ‘Multiple Loyalties’– He Gets Yeshiva Award American Loyalty Concept,” New York Times, October 28, 1957.

Roger Creene, “Not Too Reluctant Is the Coy Kennedy,” Washington Post /Times Herald, November 10, 1957, p, E-3.

“Catholic President Upheld by Kennedy,” New York Times Book Review, November 25, 1957.

Sean Kirst, “Amid Election Day Fatigue, JFK’s Syracuse Reminder of the Nobility of Elected Office,” The Post-Standard, Nov. 6, 2012.

 

JFK Speeches & Remarks: 1957

Address of Senator Kennedy Before the Irish Institute, New York, New York, “Irish History,” January 12, 1957, 12pp. 

Address of Senator Kennedy at the University of Illinois Senior Convocation, Champaign, Illinois, “Politics: Our Most Neglected Profession,” January 27, 1957, 25pp. 

Address of Senator Kennedy at Dinner Honoring Herbert Hoover, Washington, D.C., “The Second Hoover Commission,” February 4,1957, 5pp. 

Address of Senator Kennedy at Annual Chamber of Commerce Dinner, Albany, Georgia, “Foreign Policy,” February 7, 1957, 23pp. 

Address of Senator Kennedy at the Annual Convention of American Association of School Administrators and National School Board Association, Atlantic City, New Jersey, “The Education of an American Politician,” February 19,1957, 21pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy upon Receipt of the 1957 Patriotism Award, Notre Dame University, South Bend, Indiana. “Careers in Politics,” February 22, 1957, 33pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy at 34th Annual Jackson Day Banquet, Springfield, Missouri, “The Democratic Party; Foreign Policy,” February 23, 1957, 37pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy at the 1957 Brotherhood Year Observance-The National Conference of Christians and Jews, Cleveland, Ohio, “Comity and Common Sense in the Middle East,” February 24, 1957, 23pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy at St. Patrick’s Day Dinner, Baltimore, Maryland, “Irish History; Labor Racketeering,” March 17, 1957, 22pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy at Alabama League of Municipalities Banquet, Birmingham, Alabama, “Labor Racke- teering,” March 21, 1957, 23pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy before the New York Herald Tribune Forum for High Schools, New York, New York, “Foreign Policy in a Democracy,” March 23, 1957, 8pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy at Democratic Dinner, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The Democratic Party; Foreign Policy,” March 29, 1957, 26pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy at Chamber of Commerce Dinner, Lynchburg, Virginia. “Labor Racketeering; Foreign Policy,” April 4, 1957, 22pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy before the National Screw Machine Products Association, Washington, D.C., “Small Business Tax Relief,” April 10, 1957, 3pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy at Universal Notre Dame Night Celebration, Washington, D.C., “Labor Racketeering,” April 29, 1957, 18pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy at the First General Session of the 45th Annual Meeting of the National Chamber of Commerce, Washington, D.C., “America’s International Responsibilities,” April 29, 1957, 21pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy from the Special Committee on the Senate Reception Room, “Choice of Five Senators Whose Portraits Are to Be Placed in the Senate Reception Room,” May 1, 1957, 82pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy at Symposium of the Associated Harvard Clubs, Washington, D.C., “The Role of the University in Government,” May 3, 1957, 6pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy at the Annual Awards Dinner of the Overseas Press Club, New York, New York, “U.S. Policy Towards Poland,” May 6, 1957, 19pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy at Delaware State Jefferson-Jackson Day Democratic Dinner, Wilmington, Delaware, “The Democratic Party,” May 9, 1957, 28pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy at Democratic Club Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, “Participation of Women in Politics,” May 11,1957, 6pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy at Jefferson-Jackson Day Dinner, Omaha, Nebraska, “The Democratic Party; U.S. Policy Towards Poland,” May 17, 1957, 29pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy at University of Nebraska Convocation, Lincoln, Nebraska, “Careers in Politics,” May 18, 1957, 20pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, New England Publishers Association Luncheon, Boston, Massachusetts, “Labor Racketeering,” May 21, 1957, 21 pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Annual Dinner and Reception, Democratic Party of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois, The Democratic Party; U.S. Policy Towards Poland,” May 23, 1957, 23pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, University of South Carolina Commencement, Columbia, South Carolina, “Careers in Politics,” May 31, 1957, 19pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Syracuse University Commencement, Syracuse, New York, “Careers in Politics,” June 3, 1957, 20pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Arkansas Bar Association Annual Convention, Hot Springs, Arkansas,” Labor Racketeering,” June 7, 1957, 23pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy before the Southeastern Peanut Association, Atlanta, Georgia, “Farm Policy,” June 10, 1957, 5pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, University of Georgia Commencement, Athens, Georgia, “Careers in Politics,” June 10, 1957, 20pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, American Relief for Poland Dinner, Detroit, Michigan, “U.S. Policy Toward Poland,” June 13, 1957, 12pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Massachusetts Bar Association Luncheon, Plymouth, Massachusetts, “Labor Racketeering,” June 15, 1957, 13pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Jefferson-Jackson Day Dinner, Rockland, Maine, “The Democratic Party,” June 15, 1957, 19pp.

Remarks of Senator Kennedy on the Senate Floor, “The Struggle Against Imperialism-Part II: Poland and Eastern Europe,” August 21, 1957, 58pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Wisconsin Democratic Dinner, Wisconsin, “The Democratic Party,” August 22, 1957, 23pp.

Remarks of Senator Kennedy in the United States Senate. “Proposed Amendment of Constitution Relating to Election of President and Vice President,” August 30, 1957, 3pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Milton Seminary Benefactor’s Day, Milton, Massachusetts, “Christian Missionaries,” September 1,1957, 9pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, U.S. Conference of Mayors, New York, New York, “Our American Cities and Their Second Class Citizens,” September 11, 1957, 40pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, lona College Convocation, New Rochelle, New York, “Honorary Degrees,” September 19, 1957, 5pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, University of New Brunswick Convocation, Fredericton, New Brunswick, “U.S.-Canada Relations,” October 8, 1957, 16pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Economic Club Dinner, Chicago, Illinois, “Foreign Policy,” October 9, 1957, 26pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Teachers’ Association Convention, Swampscott, Massachusetts, “Education in America,” October 9, 1957, 11pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Teachers’ Association Convention, Baltimore, Maryland, “Education in America,” October 10, 1957, 14pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Massachusetts Town Clerks’ Association Convention, Great Barrington, Massachusetts, “Urban Politics,” October 10, 1957, 10pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, United Givers Fund Kick-Off Dinner, New Bedford, Massachusetts, “Philanthropy,” October 13, 1957, 15pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, National Association of County Agricultural Agents Annual Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, “Farm Policy,” October 14, 1957, 25pp.

Address of Robert F. Kennedy before the Inland Daily Press Association, Chicago, Illinois,” Labor Racketeering,” October 15, 1957, 14pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Young Democrats Dinner, Jackson, Mississippi, “The Democratic Party,” October 17, 1957, 18pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, University of Florida Blue Key Banquet, Gainesville, Florida, “Can We Compete with the Russians?,” October 18, 1957, 15pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, University of Florida Phi Alpha Delta Legal Fraternity Breakfast, Gainesville, Florida, “Labor Racketeering,” October 19, 1957, 18pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Annual Freedom Award to the Hungarian Freedom Fighters, New York, New York, “Foreign Policy; Hungary,” October 23, 1957, 9pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Associated Industries of Massachusetts Annual Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts, “Labor Racketeering,” October 24, 1957, 14pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy upon Receipt of Yeshiva University’s Charter Day Award of 1957, New York, New York, “Tribute to James J. Lyons; Background of Yeshiva University,” October 27, 1957, 8pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Democratic City Committee Annual Pre-Election Dinner, Easton, Pennsylvania, “The Democratic Party; Leadership in Foreign Affairs,” October 30, 1957, 14pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, AFL-CIO Industrial Union Department Second Constitutional Convention, Washington, D.C., “Labor Legislation,” October 31,1957, 25pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Oklahoma, “Farm Policy,” November 1957, 7pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Howard Crawley Memorial Lecture, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. “The New Dimensions of American Foreign Policy.” November 1, 1957, 20pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Kansas Democratic Club Banquet, Topeka, Kansas, “The Democratic Party,” November 6, 1957, 3pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Oklahoma Jefferson-Jackson Day Dinner, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, “Science and Security,” November 7, 1957, 12pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, University of Kansas Convocation, Lawrence, Kansas, “Careers in Politics,” November 7, 1957, 10pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Young Democratic Clubs of America Convention, Reno, Nevada, “The Democratic Party,” November 1957, 10pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, American Jewish Congress National Congress Week, New York, New York, “U.S. Domestic Problems,” November 17, 1957, 16pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy before the Florida League of Municipalities, Daytona Beach, Florida, “Urban Politics; Labor Racketeering,” November 18, 1957, 18pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Temple Emmanuel, New York, New York, “Foreign Policy,” November 19, 1957, 9pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, Texas State Teachers Association Convention, Dallas, Texas, “American Education,” November 28, 1957, 14pp.

Address of Senator Kennedy, National Conference of Christians and Jews Dinner, Chicago, Illinois, “Foreign Policy,” December 3, 1957, 14pp.

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